Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0103
Updated July, November, 2009
Updated January, April, 2010
Updated April, 2012
2009 - 2012
Excerpted from Chinese
The H-200 Passive ESA (PESA) engagement
used with the KS-1A SAM system is representative of the new generation
of indigenous Chinese military radars. It is modelled on the Patriot's
MPQ-53 engagement radar.
and Fire Control Radars
CPMIEC HT-233 /
HQ-9/10 Phased Array Radar
PESA engagement radar on the 10 x 10 Taian TAS-5380 series chassis (©
2009, Bradley Huang).
is the Chinese derivative of the Russian 30N6E1 Tomb Stone used to
detect and track
targets, and control the launch of the S-300PMU1 / SA-20 Gargoyle air
defence missile. In the Chinese case, however, the HT-233 is also
associated with the HQ-10, HQ-15, HQ-9 / FD-2000 or HQ-9 / FT-2000
The latter was a combined Israeli/Chinese missile designed to take out
stand-off jammers which threaten SAM target designation radars. The
parameter set is
likely to be similar to that of 30N6E1 which it emulates.
is reported that the PLAAF air defence forces based in Fujian Province
near the Taiwan Strait, are equipped with the FT-2000 and Russian-made
S-300PMU1 SAMs acquired between 1991 and 1998.
FT-2000 battalion can function alone where it would seek its targets
with ESM systems, but more commonly it is anticipated to be part of
an S-300 detachment.
Little is known about the radar other than it
may function in G-band, probably between 5.2 and 5.9
GHz a sub-band for which production components are readily available.
descriptions, the antenna would most likely appear to be a passive
phased array employing some 3,000 ferrite phase shifters (the 30N6 uses
~10,000 elements). It has
mechanical scan in azimuth and electronic beam steering in
azimuth/elevation, like the 30N6E1, up
to 65° off aperture boresight, and can track up to 50 targets
It is possibly that a variant of this radar,
referred to by NATO as TOMB STONE, is installed in Type 051C LANZHOU
class destroyers. S-300PMU1
/ SA-20 and FT-2000 systems are deployed around Beijing and at
Longtian, near Fuzhou, facing Taiwan. They are also deployed near the
coastal cities of Xiamen in Fujian Province and Shantou in
Production configurations of the radar is
deployed on the 10
x 10 Taian TAS5501 chassis, based on the Russian MAZ-543 vehicle.
configuration of HT-233
PESA engagement radar on 8 x 8
Production HT-233 configuration on a 10
x 10 Taian TAS5501 chassis. This version includes an IFF array
across the top of the primary aperture, and also shows the 30N6E1 style
primary aperture and space feed well. Below display models of this
variant (© 2009, Bradley
Deployed HQ-9 battery. Above, self
propelled YLC-2V to the left with its
three support vehicles, in the background a HT-233 battery engagement
radar. Below, transloader in the foreground, HT-233 to the right.
CASIC SJ-231 /
KS-1A/HQ-12 Phased Array Radar
The SJ-231 is an
radar for the KS-1A/HQ-12 SAM system, based on the HT-233 PESA antenna
and cabin design. Cited performance is virtually identical to the
H-200. Unlike the towed H-200, the SJ-231 is self propelled, but unlike
the HT-233 it is split across a pair of 6 x 6 or 8 x 8 vehicles.
|Radar cross section:
|Maximum detection range:
|Minimum detection range:
|Maximum operational airspace:
(mechanical rotation range)
(electrical scanning range)
(electrical scanning range)
at the same time
"The SJ-231 guidance station is an important constituent part and the
operational command and control center of the KS-1A weapon system. It
is used to detect and track the aerial target and control and guide the
missile. The SJ-231 guidance station is an advanced guidance radar
system and is developed according to the modern war characteristics and
the modern air-defense combat requirements. During the development of
the guidance station, many advanced techniques in the radar technique
development since 1990s are applied to improve the technical
performance of the SJ-231 guidance station to a new level."
antenna on this radar is common to a
HT-233, but the configuration is
split across two 6 x 6 trucks.
CNPIPC / CEIEC
H-200 KS-1A / HQ-12 Phased Array / Triumphant
H-200 engagement radar and
KS-1A TEL. The H-200 is semi-mobile, but with further evolution could
qualify as mobile (© 2009,
In 2000 the KS-1A was promoted as a new air defence missile,
supplanting the earlier SA-2 copy known as the KS-1 (Kaishan-1, refer
A ‘medium-to-high altitude, long-range SAM guidance station’ is how
this radar is presented and it is believed to be a Chinese reverse
engineered copy of the American AN/MPQ-53 Patriot radar. This being the
case, the H-200 can be expected to function in G-bands, offering
integrated electronic sector surveillance, target detection (TD),
target tracking (TT), Identification Friend & Foe (IFF), and
missile guidance (MG) functionality.
The antenna face comprises surveillance, IFF, target illumination and
data transmission elements, and will offer phase steered target
detection over an approximate 90º sector and tracking over a somewhat
wider sector, but less than 160º. Reported capability is as follows:
Target detection & tracking
Max detection range:
≥120km @ 8 km altitude ≥50km @ 0.1km alt
Max stable tracking:
≥90km @ 8 km alt ≥45km @ 0.1km alt
Target characteristics: RCS:
Max target velocity:
Accurate tracking 3 targets; Monitoring 3 targets; Guidance 6 missiles;
Guidance error: ≤50m
Set-up time ≤30 mins Tear-down time ≤20 mins qualifying the radar as
Note 1: The KS-1 missile
is usually associated with the SJ-202, whereas
the KS-1A is being associated with the H-200 / KS-1A phased array.
Note 2: Antenna is very
similar to that of BL904. A deployed example of
H-200 / KS-1A phased array radar can be seen at 43º 56’ 57.18” North,
87º 40’ 25.49” East, surrounded by six probable KS-1A missile launchers.
The H-200 is modelled on the MPQ-53
30N6E1 with a space feed arrangement, but using a simple horn rather
than lens arrangement.
2FA(B)/ ZD-2(B)/ HQ-2BE / SNR-75A Gin Sling B /
HQ-2 and HQ2J Guideline
GIN SLING B is the NATO name for this engagement radar which appears to
be a Chinese version of the old Soviet SNR-75 FAN SONG radar, (see also
SJ-202) which is deployed with the SA-2 Guideline or
KS-1 SAMs. It comprises a number of radiating elements.
There are two E/F-band Lewis scanners. These are believed to be the
azimuth and elevation air search elements, although this radar would
not normally function in isolation, and would usually receive target
prompts from any one of a variety of volumetric search radars.
An F-band element is possibly used for target tracking whilst G-band
elements are for missile guidance.
An I-band element reportedly has a range only (RO) function for
accurate range measurement whilst a D-band element may have an IFF
ZD-2(B) is the designator given to the complete missile guidance
associated with the HQ-2B missile, whilst 2FA(B) is the radar
The RF and PRF/PRI value suffixes (refer book) imply their linkage
transmission. G2 may represent a second transmission source with subtly
different parameters, to reduce the probability of mutual interference
if they operated in close proximity.
The Lewis Scan search technique combines the output of two separate
assemblies that are set at 90° to each other.
The RF feeds rotate independently to achieve horizontal and vertical
scans respectively, over a narrow sector at a medium data rate, usually
between 10 and 25 Hertz and one source has suggested a rate between
15.5 and 17 Hz This system is ageing and is not included in the CRIA
2004 list of indigenously supplied equipment (refer book).
However, whilst it might still be materially supported, it is probably
out of production and due for replacement.
In the meantime its major attributes appear to have been retained in
the visually less sophisticated SJ-202 (see separate entry), which is
being promoted for export.
This radar has been exported to Albania, Iran, North Korea and
Sling A / KS-1
The SJ-202 is a fire control
radar and is reported by Taiwan to be associated with the KAISHAN-1
(KS-1) SAM, although is may also be deployed for use with the HongQi-2
(HQ-2B/J) and SA-2 SAM detachments, where the latter still exist.
It appears to be an indigenous development of the system known
generically to NATO as GIN SLING (see also separate entry for 2FA(B) /
GIN SLING B), out of the Russian FAN SONG system to which it has very
similar physical attributes and, therefore may exhibit similar
transmission parameters, particularly as it appears to deploy identical
LEWIS scan tracking antennas in both the horizontal and vertical planes.
In this respect, although variously reported so to be, it is not a
phased-array radar. The Lewis scanners are anticipated to function in
the 10~25 Hertz range, and other parameters may be similar to those of
GIN SLING B.
2004 display model of the SJ-202 Gin Sling A.
Type 341 /
H/LJP-341 RICE LAMP / Type 342/342C FOG LAMP /
ZL-1B SD1/A 723
CW Tracking and
The HQ-61 Surface to Air
Missile system is derived from the Selenia Aspide, itself a derivative
of the US AIM-7 Sparrow. The SAM is available in naval and land based
air defence variants. The land based variant uses the Type 571
acquisition radar, a derivative of the Soviet P-15 Flat Face, and a CW
tracking and illumination radar. The latter has not been seen in the
West, but its naval variants have and are known as the Type 341 RICE
LAMP and Type 342 FOG LAMP.
Type 341 Fire Control System - this ageing I-band fire control radar is
reminiscent of HAWK SCREECH a Soviet shipborne fire control system of
the 1960s and 1970s and it is suspected that Type 341 can probably
trace it's origin to that period.
Originally widely fitted in JIANGHU, LUDA, JIANGWEI frigates for the
control and direction of HQ-61 missile firings, it has since been
replaced in many installations by Type 347G RICE BOWL in Chinese
vessels, but not in exported hulls such as the Type 053HT CHAO PHRAYA
class in Thailand.
It may still also be installed in some other older hulls where it
supports either the twin 37mm or 57mm general-purpose guns although it
appears to have been removed from the Thai Navy’s HUDONG class
Below the parabolic dish there is a longitudinal antenna-like array.
The application is unknown but could be either an I-band, end-fed
search array for which it is about the right size assuming that the
director can rotate on its pedestal -or more likely it may have an
Type 342 Fire Control Radar - this H/I-bands radar shares some physical
similarities with the old Soviet OWL SCREECH fire control system.
Known in NATO as FOG LAMP, it is currently installed in JINGWEI I class
frigates and is used as the target tracker for the HQ-61
surface-air-missile (SAM) systems in that hull.
This radar was also fitted in JIANGDONG class frigates, since replaced
by later versions of JIANGWEI I.
It is believed that Type 342 might be nearing its demise in the PLAN.
There are some similarities with Type 313, which is an I-band system
originally developed in the late 1980s for land based and naval
Although reported as an H/I band radar it is considered to function
within the range indicated because H-band is preserved specifically for
satellite related activities.
There is a single web record of a Type 342C but no details about this
assumed emitter have been found. However, based on precedent this could
be a land based mobile variant.
LY-60 / HQ-64
LY-60 / HQ-64
Radar (image © 2009,
Very little has been disclosed
to date on the HQ-64/LY-60 engagement radar, with the system first
being displayed publicly in late 2008 (above). This radar is
primarily a Continuous Wave X-band illuminator for the monopulse
semi-active homing LY-60 missile round, a reverse engineered Aspide
Mk.1 (AIM-7 derivative). The simplicity of the fixed single horn
feed makes it unlikely that this radar includes a monopulse precision
tracking capability often seen in Russian CW tracker/illuminator
Crotale Engagement Radar
of the reverse engineered Thomson
HQ-7 is a Chinese clone of the French Thales/Thomson CSF Crotale SAM.
the 1970s the French supplied samples of the Crotale
was promptly reverse engineered. The cloned Crotale has been built in
configurations, a high mobility variant for PLA Army units on a 4 x 4
vehicle, and a less mobile PLA-AF air field defence system, using
trailer or a truck platform. A naval variant as also been developed.
A four round elevating tube
used, mounting the Ku-band Automatic Command to Line Of Sight monopulse
dish antenna. Export variants are the FM-80 and improved FM-90 with a
longer ranging missiles.
The naval HQ-7 installations on the Lua, Luhu, Luhia and Jiangwai II
classes employ the Type 345 engagement radar, believed to be a reverse
engineered Thomson-CSF Castor 2J/C.
If the Chinese copy of the Castor 2J/C is faithful then it will have
pulse compression, velocity discrimination filters, frequency agility
to enable clutter de-correlation and a passive tracking capability.
System employs Doppler tracking with a first blind speed of 1,000m/sec.
Maximum airborne target tracking range is given as 40km. Antenna
beamwidth is reported to be 0.67º with 43 dB of gain across a
elevation of -25º~+85º. Peak power is given at 30kW with an antenna
gain of 43.0dB.
|Type 345 [Castor 2J/C] Specifications
7,150 ~ 7,250
137.9 ~ 139.8
HQ-7FS/FM-80 engagement radar on 4 x 4 TELAR.
HQ-7FS/FM-90 engagement radar on 6 x 6 TELAR (image
LD-2000 TR47 /
Type 730 / H/PJ12 / LR66 Engagement Radar
The LD-2000 SPAAG/SPAAGM is
intended for point defence of fixed ground sites against low flying
rotary and fixed wing threats, and has significant growth potential as
a Counter-PGM (C-PGM) and Counter-RAM (C-RAM) terminal defence system.
The design employs two radars, a TR-47 series engagement radar
for the gun mount, and an acquisition radar mounted on a telescoping
NORINCO have confirmed that the tracking radar operates in J-band,
estimated between 15.7 and 17.3 GHz, with a maximum cited range of 9
km. This would imply a maximum PRF of around 16,000 pps. There is also
a coupled TV and IR tracker system on the weapon, that was used for
acceptance trials, which were apparently successful. The acquisition
radar functions in I-band, estimated between 8.8 and 9.7 GHz.
Following the trials, in an original format vehicle, it is now being
offered for export.
As can be seen from numerous
picture images, the I-band acquisition radar has now been integrated
into the main LD-2000 combat vehicle (CV). There appears not to be an
Intelligence and Communications Vehicle (ICV) any more, which gives the
CV more freedom. The I-band acquisition radar also has a new
reflector with a dual horn feed, for improved vertical coverage, and a
new turning motor which might imply a complete new I-band system.
According to Christopher F. Foss in JDW 25Nov09 p27; the gun is a
Type 730B 30mm 7-barrel Gatling with a max rate of fire of 4,200
rounds/min, over an effective range of 2.5 ~ 3.5 km. The weapon is
loaded with 1,000 rounds, enough, apparently, for about 48 potential
target engagements. As reported originally in the Chinese radars text,
the gun is capable of firing armour-piercing discarding sabot (APDS),
high explosive incendiary (HEI) and target practice (TP) rounds.
The limitation of the existing LD-2000 design is in its acquisition
radar, which is not suitable for high speed low radar cross section
targets, especially flown along steep trajectories. This precludes the
use of the current LD-2000 configuration in C-RAM and C-PGM roles. The
TR-47 series tracking radar has been used for naval shipboard defence
applications and is claimed to be effective against Mach 2 low
signature sea skimming threats, making it viable for land based C-RAM
and C-PGM roles. The principal adaptation required to make the LD-2000
a highly capable C-RAM/C-PGM system is integration with a suitable
acquisition radar design, such as the SLC-2 or newer Type 704 series
counter-battery radars, for a narrower C-PGM role an existing air
defence phased array such as the H-200 would be suitable.
TR-47G Engagement Radar
Export Desig: TR47G
Other Desigs: TR47C, Type 47G
RF (MHz) 8,800 ~ 9,600
RF Agility 700 MHz
PRF (pps) -
PRI (μsecs) -
PD (μsecs) 0.3 ~ 0.4
ST Monopulse - Circular -
Beamwidth (H & V) 2º
Gain ≥ 37dB
Bearing ≤ 1mrad
Elevation ≤ 1 mrad
Range ≤ 5 m
Peak power 120-150 kW
Noise Factor ≤9 dB
System reaction time ≤ 3s
MTI improvement factor ≥ 25dB
The existing acquisition radar is a low
cost design suitable for airborne battlefield threats, but not the more
challenging C-RAM and C-PGM roles.
variants of the Type 703 are direct equivalents to the European
Comparison of PLA search and acquisition radar
performance. The Russian
Protivnik GE and Gamma DE are included for reference (C. Kopp)
3D Long Range
The massive L-band YLC-2 bears
much similarity to the Thales TRS-2230, the ITT-Gilfillan 320 and
NNIIRT Protivnik GE.
This radar is carried in the
2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous products. There is also a new
version designated YLC-2A (next page), and a self-propelled version;
YLC-2V. (See Section 5.7), but note that they both function in
Little is known about this radar except that five YLC-2 radars were
handed over to the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) at Faisal Airbase on 15th
June 2003, and probably two more in 2006, to be used in support of the
PAF air defence network1, where it was reported to be a
high-powered, solid-state, long-range 3D air surveillance radar,
similarly reported by its manufacturer Nanjing Research Institute of
Electronic Technology (NRIET), without reference to having a phased
array in either case.
Although China reporters2 have often claimed that
frequency-scanning radars are phased arrays, recently provided data
suggests that the YLC-2 is actually an active phased array.3
The antenna array has 54 horizontal elements, each fed by a 2.0 kW
(peak, at 8% duty cycle) T/R module that is reported to have improved
upon the earlier design of the AN/TPS-59 and GE-592 radars of which it
appears to be a copy. The main antenna is topped by an IFF/MSSR array.
The system is said to have a detection range of 330km, which would
suggest a peak PRF of around 455pps and operational PRF of about
300pps. It is reported to have a variety of electronic
counter-countermeasures (ECCMs), to enable survival in a hostile
There are two other versions, the YLC-2A and YLC-2V (see) but both
employ smaller, more compact antenna arrays and have been declared to
function in E/F-band.
Wikipedia claims the following unverifiable specification:
Detection range: 330 km
Range accuracy: 200 m
Range resolution: 300 m
Azimuth: 0º ~ 360º
Elevation: 0.5º ~ 20º
Height accuracy: 400m @ 200 km
750m @ 300 km
Antenna aperture: 7m x 9 m
level: -35 dB
MTI improvement factor: 44 dB
power: 85 kW
Average power: 5.5 kW
Chen Zhencheng reported 2.0kW
peak for each of 54 T/R modules, implying a system PEP of 104kW.
PEP 85kW and average of 5.5kW imply a duty cycle of about 6.5%.
A single report suggests an instrumental range of 550km, which would
require a minimum PRF of about 275pps whilst a range resolution of 300m
would indicated a minimum (processed) PD of 1µs.
One source has referred to a YLC-2 radar as the ‘San Zuobiao remote
warning radar’. Subject to confirmation, it is assumed that San Zuobiao
is the location of a YLC-2 installation.
|NRIET / CEIEC / CETC
||1,240 ~ 1,400
|SP (sec / Hz)
3 Chen Zhencheng,1996 Beijing Radar Conference (pp.171-174).
4 Most Chinese radar reporting sources tend to call frequency scanning
(Frescan) radars ‘phased array radars’, which from a strict purist
viewpoint, they are not. China only has few active phased array systems
of which Type 346, installed on Type 052C Luyang II-class destroyers is
a good example. Most of China’s ‘phased arrays’ are in fact Frescan
systems, mechanically scanning in azimuth and frequency scanning in
elevation. A Chinese commentator in Hong Kong stated that it is a far
less expensive solution [than an active phased array] but still
produces good results - a phrase previously voiced by Russian
commentators when comparing active and passive phased arrays.
towed variant with reduced elevation resolution. This subtype is
carried on a
Self propelled YLC-2V
deployed and on the move.
JL3D-90A / 3D Commander
This radar is carried in the 2004 CRIA listing
of Chinese indigenous products.
This is a fully coherent, 3D radar with a low
side-lobe, planar, phased array antenna.
radar may be used for civil and friendly air traffic management,
detection of hostile aircraft and, as in the illustration, it may
have an IFF sub-system integrated to determine the friendliness of
targets in flight.
information (2004) states that the JL3D-90A employs a radio frequency
(RF) agile transmitter with a klystron amplifier chain and a low-noise
linear receiver using digital pulse compression techniques to achieve
long-range detection with good target discrimination. Adaptive digital
signal processing is employed with comprehensive BITE.
The receiver’s dynamic range is given
two different value in two brochures, one each from JESE and CEIEC
Monopulse sum/difference height measurement is
employed with automatic target extraction and adaptive signal
Target processing capacity is 100 tracks for
every antenna scan (10secs).
The antenna cover diagram for a probability of
detection of 80% against a radar cross section of 2m2 is
illustrated, whilst the processing and display cabinets are shown below.
Target detection data:
Range accuracy: 150m
Altitude accuracy: 500m
Azimuth accuracy: 0.25°
Range resolution: 90m
Azimuth resolution: 1.5º
Dimensions: 5.2m x 5.4m
Elevation cover 0.5º -20º
Horizontal beamwidth: 1.5º
Vertical beamwidth: 1.5°
Near axis side-lobe level -35dB
Far axis side-lobe level -45dB
Peak power output: 700kW.
Noise figure: ≤2dB
Dynamic range: 90dB/110dB
ECRIEE / CETC
JY-11/JY-11B HUNTER-1, XINDI
This radar is carried in the
2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous products.
A modern, highly mobile F-band radar with an integrated D-band IFF
sub-system designed as a low-to-medium altitude 3D surveillance
gap-filling system, capable of military air traffic control (ATC).
This radar was first declared (as HUNTER1) at the International Radar
Symposium in Munich 1998, where it was stated to be a highly mobile,
solid-state, frequency-scanning, target indication radar. For mobility
it locates very quickly piggy-back fashion on a flat-back 4x4 truck.
The JY-11 is a 3D radar, mechanically scanned in azimuth and frequency
scanned in elevation where it has five groups of beams: one long range
and four medium range groups. The five groups forming a total of 14
electronically scanned beams providing 30º of vertical cover.
Facilities and capabilities include a narrow-beam, low sidelobe antenna
with dual, slow-wave structure enabling the radar to operate over two
sub-frequency bands separated by 100 MHz, which overcomes the
disadvantage of weak anti-active jamming capability in a single band.
Digital pulse compression with a relatively low power output, across a
large dynamic range, is achieved by a fully coherent highly reliable
There is a JY-11B but it
appears to have significantly newer
attributes. This radar is not carried in the 2004 CRIA listing of
Chinese indigenous products.
The JY-11B Mobile, Low-Altitude
believed to have been advertised for the first time in the CETC
2007 catalogue of products and is claimed to be a solid-state, mobile,
low-altitude 3D air surveillance radar, operating in the E/F-band.
employs ‘reconfigurable’ transmission beams and Digital Beam Forming
(DBF) for reception to provide low-altitude and good sea-surface
detection, with modern processing techniques including AMTI and pulse
the forgoing JY-11, this is not a dismountable system but the antenna
can be raised on a hydraulically controlled tower to improve the
low altitude coverage, very similar in concept and design to the German
system, or ByeloRussian Vostok E.
Pf=10-6, RCS 2m2)
|2.7 - 3.4 GHz
0º ~ 30º
||0º ~ 360º
|Peak power output: First sidelobe level:
Specifications: (Pd=80, Pf=10-6, RCS 2m2)
|Target detection data:
0º ~ 35º
||0º ~ 360º
Height accuracy: (≤100km)
Withdrawal: 10 mins / 4
rail, sea or air
ECRIEE / CETC
JY-29 / LSS-1 Low Altitude 2D Air Defence Radar
brochure image of the LSS-1 radar (CETC).
The LSS-1 is listed as a
high-mobility, low altitude cover, 2D gap-filling tactical radar. The
antenna comprises 16 (end-fed) elements and it folds down over the
drivers cab for transportation. The system functions in D-band (L-band)
and may employ Doppler processing.
LSS-1 is listed by CRIA as a current indigenous product manufactured by
ECRIEE and was presented in model form at CIDEX, the Beijing Defence
Exhibition, in May 2004.
Since the original notification of production in 2004, the system’s
reported measurement accuracy and resolution have been halved.
The first reference to this family of radars was as the JY-29, in a
2001 IEEE conference publication. The Type 120 radar, hosted on a
North-Benz 6 x 6 military truck, appears to be a direct evolution of
the LSS-1 design, for use by PLA air defence units.
80%, Pfaa=10-6, SW1, σ = 2 m2)
Instrumented range: 250 km
Search range: 200 km
Height: 12,000 m
Target capacity: ≥72 tracks
Given a detection range of 180km would suggest maximum PRF in the order
Range: 100 m
Range: 300 m
MTBCF: ≥ 800 hrs
MTTR: ≤ 30 mins
Deployment: 5 mins by 2 persons
Withdrawal: 5 mins by 2 persons
Startup time: 30 seconds
Transport units: 2 x 6-wheeled vehicles
120 fully deployed. Note the hydraulic rams used to elevate the antenna
mast (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
ECRIEE / CETC
JYL-1 Long-range 3D Air Defence Radar
radar is carried in the 2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous
The JYL-1 is a long-range 3D
surveillance radar typical of those assets that might be found in a
modern air defence network.
It functions in the E/F-band
region and might be used as either a military or commercial asset
for air traffic control and management purposes.
(Pd=80%, Pf=10-6, SW1, RCS=2m2)
Elevation: 0º ~ 25º
Search range; 320km
Height: 600m @ 200km
MTBF: ≥ 800hrs
MTTR: ≤ 0.5 hrs
In the long-range search
mode, max PRF to be expected is approx 430pps.
August 2005, Venezuela contracted three units as part of an air defence
upgrade programme, to replace two old U.S. supplied AN/TPS-70 radars.
The picture above is interesting because, although captioned as a
JYL-1, most pictures show this radar to be mounted on a flat-bed
truck, like that shown in the title image, but this is a demountable
version, more akin to the JY-11 series .
It takes approximately 1 hour by 8 persons to setup the system and a
similar time to dismantle it.
Three vehicles form the system convoy. The latest picture made
available by CETC confirms that the antenna is demountable.
ECRIEE JY-14 /
Great Wall Tactical 3D Surveillance Radar
This is a medium-to long-range
tactical 3D surveillance radar the primary function of which is air
and it is expected to be deployed in regional air defence networks.
It has 8 RF feeds, six in E/F-band and two in D-band, the latter two
giving good height cover where the lowest may also be used for an IFF
facility. Reported parameters are:
, SW1, σ = 3m2
Search range; 320km
Target capacity: ≥72 tracks
Beams: 8 vertically stacked / 1st sidelobe -30db
Detection Accuracy (rms):
Height: 400m @ 200km
MTI improvement 40dB
System noise figure 5.5dB
IF bandwidth 450Hz
This radar employs a number of modern technologies including a
low-sidelobe antenna, pulse compression, self-adaptive moving target
indication (AMTI), with a peak envelope power (PEP) of approximately
JY-14 is reported to have a range of anti jamming facilities, to ensure
normal operation in the most severe of electronic warfare (EW)
RF agility range is stated to be 15%, which suggests about 450MHz in
the highest RF range listed. There is a selection of 30 RFs within this
range available for diversity or agility operations, which suggests
repetitive fixed frequency hopping in the latter case.
At least one source states that the frequency diversity interval is
150MHz, which might confirm the use of the two lower frequency
Outside of mainland China, and arguably even within it, the
lowest RF band shown is considered unlikely (in peacetime) as it is no
longer allocated for radar operations (refer book).
On 22nd October 2001, China Reform Monitor No. 410 reported that a
JY-14 emitter had been detected in Iran (by electronic intercept) close
to the Afghanistan border.
JY-14 Great Wall.
NRIET / CETC
YLC-6/6M / STAR 2000 Medium Range Surveillance
radar was initially reported at the Chinese International Conference on
Radar, held in Beijing in 1996, where a paper described it as a highly
mobile, solid-state, three-coordinate, medium-range surveillance radar,
developed by NRIET. Since then it has been consistently reported as a
YLC-6 is a demountable radar that incorporates a range of modern
technologies including an advanced MTD processor to enhance its
performance for both military and civil applications .
YLC-6 has been deployed in considerable numbers along the Chinese
coastline, as a second line of air surveillance facing Taiwan.
tests this system is said to have detected and tracked an American
APACHE attack helicopter out to 30 km. The system’s
maximum-instrumented range against a high-flying aircraft is given as
180km although detection range is only given out to 150km, which would
suggest a maximum instrumented PRF of 1,000pps and an operational
stagger of average about 700pps.
details of the antenna, its feed and its overall size initially
suggested it functioned in E/F-band, which was confirmed by CETC in
and regardless of the 3D claims made in 1996, CETC continues to promote
the YLC-6 as a 2D radar.
Operating frequency: E/F-band
Coverage: (RCS=2m2, Pd=80%,
|3 ~ 150 km
0º ~ 40º
Set up time:
Standard interface to C3I system.
Either the YLC-6 or -6M has been exported to Pakistan, which is
understood to have required up to 10 units. Meanwhile, the YLC-6M is
listed by the CRIA in 2004 as an indigenous product of NRIET that is
available for export. There is a static version of this radar used at
some airports and known as YLC-6 ATC.
The specific features claimed by NRIET are:
mobility, rapid deployment, Good low altitude detection
performance, Excellent ECCM capability, Fully coherent solid-state
transmitter, Low side-lobe antenna, Dual channel receiver
redundancy, Digital signal processor, Excellent clutter rejection,
hydraulic levelling, Automatic north finding with GPS.
model (refer book) demonstrates the non-demountable 6-wheel variant
YLC-6M (M = mobile -assumed) that was shown in Beijing in 2004.
This system continues to be promoted by CETC in 2008.
High Mobility Medium Range Low Altitude 3D Radar
This is a two-vehicle convoy, high mobility, medium-range, low-altitude
3D radar announced by CETC in June 2007 at Singapore.
The reported system features are excellent low-altitude performance
with high measurement accuracy, strong ECCM capability.
Operating frequency: EF-band
= 80%, RCS = 2m2)
Range: ≥ 250km
Height: ≥ 12,000m
Elevation: 0º ~ 35º
Azimuth: 0º ~ 360º
Its detection range suggest instantaneous PRF of 600pps thus
operational PRF of approx 400 is suspected.
Azimuth: ≤ 0.3º
Range: ≤ 100m
Height: ≤ 600m (within 200km)
MTBCF: ≥ 1,000 hrs
MTTR: ≤ 30 mins
In view of its 3D capability
and potential to control aircraft and
surface-to-air weapons, its likely frequency cover is shown, which is
within the ITU regulated bands.
LY-60 / HQ-64 Acquisition Radar
LY-60 acquisition radar. This design is nearest in configuration to the
YLC-6M series, and is likely a direct derivative (image © 2009,
The CPMIEC LY-60 is a direct
clone of the Italian Selenia (Alenia) Aspide Mk.1, itself derived from
RIM-7E Sea Sparrow. This missile is frequently cited as the direct
replacement for the conceptually similar but much bulkier HQ-61.
Until recently, only poor
quality imagery of this design was available. The antenna configuration
is similar to that of the CLC-2 SPAAG acquisition radar, and the much
larger YL-6/6M series acquistion radars. However, the antenna feed and
truncated parabolic section reflector on the LY-60 design differs from
both earlier radars, suggesting this is a new design rather than
FM-90 Crotale display model at Zhuhai,
2008. The acquisition radar uses a planar array with a boresighted IFF
array (image ©
Two types of acquisition radar
are associated with different variants
of the HQ-7 family of SAM systems. The first of these uses a trucated
paraboloid reflector, the second a planar array design. The earlier
configuration has been supplied on a towed trailer, a 4 x 4 vehicle and
a 6 x 6 vehicle, the newer configuration only the latter.
Self propelled variant of the
acquisition radar on 6 x 6 vehicle (above) and 4 x 4 vehicle (below),
Over-The-Horizon Backscatter Radar
China is reported to have developed its first OTH-B radar back in
1967, although its designation is not known. Since the 1980s two
further installations have possibly been added to the inventory, with
at least one system looking out into the China Sea area reportedly to
target (US Navy) aircraft carriers.
Backscatter systems function at the upper end of the High Frequency
(HF) band, typically between 12 and 28 MHz.
OTH-B radars are bistatic systems, this is where the transmitter and
receiver use different antennas at widely separated locations to
achieve detection results. The importance of these systems is that they
are not limited by line of sight, as are most radars, but they do
require a very significant amount of processing power. This was the
limiting factor with early Chinese OTH systems, but may no longer be
Because of the very long wavelengths involved, to be efficient, the
antenna arrays are extremely large as indicated in the picture above.
China's OTH-B is said to use Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)
transmissions to enable Doppler measurements, the suppression of static
objects and the display of moving targets.
On 14th November 2001 www.china.com reported that CEIEC was (then)
developing a new OTH radar because only one system was currently
available (presumably the one shown at its web site), which is the one
assumed to be sited near the HQ of the South China Fleet at Guangzhou.
Wave-OTH (SW-OTH) Radar
Surface Wave-OTH (SW-OTH) radars are used to detect surface ship and
low air activity beyond the visible horizon, out to about 300km,
although the absolute range is dependent upon atmospheric conditions,
system power and the time of day.
The designation of China's SW-OTH is not known, but reliable reports
suggests that she has at least two systems in operation, with one
ranged over the Taiwan Straits in 2003.
CEIEC brochures state that China’s SW-OTH system uses FMICW and FMPCW
transmissions, which probably translate to Interrupted and Pulsed FMCW.
This system, albeit undesignated, is currently being promoted for
export by CEIEC. Two antenna arrays are shown. The single mast may
support a Rhombic transmission array whilst the reception array of
dipoles appears to be arranged across a bay.
Several dozen technical papers by Chinese authorities have been
reproduced in the West concerning OTH systems, including those listed
in the footnote (refer book).
Very few pictures of Chinese OTH systems have been made available and
those that are, are generally of poor quality. The one above is
reported to show a SW-OTH receiver array – across the mouth of a bay -
at an unknown location.
Further confirmation of the existence of Chinese SW-OTH systems is
supplied by amateur radio enthusiasts (HAMS) intercepts and bearing
fixes an example of which is supplied by callsign VE7BZ based in
British Columbia, who recorded the radar's signal on 1st October 2006,
1353 UTC, on 3.795 MHz.40 The detected audio is quite a rasping sound.
Additional intercepts from California and Arizona place the emitter on
or in the close proximity of Hainan Island, although Google Earth
searches have failed to identify the location of this source.
What is reported to be a Chinese SW-OTH site has been identified on the
coast southeast of Shencheng, in Zhejiang Province. The transmitter
is located at 27º 46’ 58.70” North, 120º 45’ 54.41” East, whilst the
receiver is approximately 3km southwest at 27º 45’ 26.88” North, 120º
45’ 04.98” East. The control centre for this site is just 1km northwest
of the receiver site and is readily identifiable.
Imagery Sources: Chinese
Line Artwork: © 2000, 2007,
Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0103