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Last Updated: Mon Jan 27 11:18:09 UTC 2014

Russian / Soviet Point Defence Weapons

Technical Report APA-TR-2008-0502

  by Dr Carlo Kopp, AFAIAA, SMIEEE, PEng
  May, 2008
Updated June, 2008
Updated March,
July, 2009
Updated April, 2012
© 2008 - 2012 Carlo Kopp

The 2S6 Tunguska/ SA-19 Grison is the replacement for the ZSU-23-4P SPAAG. It has spawned a series of variants, including the potent Pantsir S1 / SA-22 Greyhound, equipped with a phased array engagement radar derived from an aircraft design (Russian internet image).


A topic which has received less than its due attention in the recent defence debate is that of the evolving role of point defence weapons.

Historically such weapons were employed mostly to stop 'leakers', aircraft which managed to penetrate through fighter defences and area defence SAM belts. Early Russian point defence weapons such as the SA-8 Gecko and ZSU-23-4P were mostly tasked with this role, defending armoured forces on the move and fixed installations against air attack.

After the enormously successful debut of the wire guided TOW missile in Vietnam, NATO forces deployed large numbers of helicopters armed with anti-tank missiles, initially wire guided, later sem-active laser homing and most recently, with active millimetric band radar seekers. The tank killing helicopter was supplemented by the tank killing A-10 Thunderbolt, armed with the AGM-65 Maverick anti-armour missile and a potent 30 mm gun.

The Soviet response to these highly effective anti-armour systems was to develop a new generation of highly mobile point defence weapons, these being the 2S6 Tunguska / SA-19 Grison and Tor / SA-15 Gauntlet, both designed to rapidly react to pop-up threats and engage them with fire before they could conceal themselves behind terrain.

With the end of the Cold War came the Desert Storm campaign, followed by US air campaigns against Serbia in 1999 and Iraq in 2003. All three of these campaigns saw the massed use of Precision Guided Munitions (PGM), more than often from standoff ranges.

Russian planners identified the PGM as the primary risk to their fixed and ground force installations, and pursued further evolution of the SA-15 and SA-19 to defeat this threat.

The latest Pantsir S1 / SA-22 Greyhound and Tor M2 / SA-15 Gauntlet systems are equipped with phased array engagement radars, very fast SAMs, and are designed to rapidly react to incoming PGMs and destroy them before they hit their targets. In a fundamental sense, Russia's designers have followed much the same path as Western naval air defence artitects have, reacting to late Cold War and subsequent anti-shipping missile capabilities. The problem is much the same.

From a force structure planning perspective, such point defence systems will over time render non-stealthy subsonic PGMs irrelevant, as these will be easily tracked and engaged. The future lies in PGMs which are stealthier and faster than existing designs.

This APA analysis surveys the most important Russian systems currently deployed and in the market.


  1. «Оса», (9К33, SA-8, SA-8A, Gecko) зенитный ракетный комплекс
  2. The OSA anti-aircraft missile system, JSC "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant "Kupol".
  3. The TOR-M1 anti-aircraft missile system, JSC "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant "Kupol".
  4. The TOR-M2E anti-aircraft missile system, JSC "Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant "Kupol".
  5. Miroslav Gyürösi, Russian companies team to develop wheeled Tor-M2E , Jane's Missiles & Rockets, October 01, 2007.
  6. Pantsir-S1 Air Defense Missile/Gun System, KBP Instrument Design Bureau, 59 Shcheglovskaya Zaseka St., 300001 Tula, Russia.
  7. Tunguska-M1 Air Defense Missile/Gun System, KBP Instrument Design Bureau, 59 Shcheglovskaya Zaseka St., 300001 Tula, Russia.
  8. 30 mm 2A38M Automatic Anti-Aircraft Gun, KBP Instrument Design Bureau, 59 Shcheglovskaya Zaseka St., 300001 Tula, Russia.
  9. Phazotron Shlem air defence radar system, Phazotron NIIR.
  10. Martin Rosenkranz, MAKS 2007 Spezial: Pantsir-S1 (SA-22), Russlands neuestes Flugabwehrsystem.
  11. PGZ95 Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery, Chinese Defence Today.
  12. HQ-7 (FM-80) Surface-to-Air Missile System, Chinese Defence Today.
  13. HQ-61A Surface-to-Air Missile, Chinese Defence Today.
  14. Schamiloglu E, High Power Electromagnetic Threats to the Civilian Infrastructure -  A New Concern for a New Age, IFIS Briefing, November, 2004, URL: http://www.ece.unm.edu/ifis/papers/CyberSecurity.ppt .
  15. Kopp, C., Air Power Australia  - May 2008 - High Energy Laser Directed Energy Weapons
  16. ГСКБ "Алмаз-Антей", Лазерные технологии, 125190, Российская Федерация, г. Москва, Ленинградский проспект,  д. 80, корпус 16.
  17. Australian Aviation  - December 1981 - High Energy Laser Weapons
  18. Air Power Australia  - May 2008 - High Energy Laser Directed Energy Weapons
  19. ГСКБ "Алмаз-Антей", Лазерные технологии,125190, Российская Федерация, г. Москва, Ленинградский проспект,  д. 80, корпус 16
  20. Air Power Australia - December 2006 - Almaz S-300PT/PS/PMU-1/2, S-400 Triumf, S-400M Samoderzhets
  21. Northrop-Grumman - Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser (MTHEL) [Includes papers]
  22. Northrop-Grumman - THEL Summary (Video)
  23. Northrop-Grumman - THEL Mortar Shootdown (Video)
  24. Northrop-Grumman - THEL Multiple-Rocket Shootdown (Video)
  25. Image sources: RuMoD,  Rosoboronexport, Almaz-Antey, KBP, Kupol, Vestnik PVO, Other.

Russian/Soviet Point Defence Systems

KBP 96K6 Pantsir S/S1/S1E / SA-22  SPAAGM

The latest Pantsir S1 configuration at MAKS-2007, carried by an 8 x 8 KAMAZ-6560 chassis. This variant incorporates a new Phazotron designed agile beam phased array engagement radar, derived from Phazotron's earlier effort on the Zhuk MF PESA air intercept radar.

(Images via KBP, Vestnik PVO)

The KBP Panstsir S1 / SA-22B Greyhound is  the most recent derivative of the Tunguska system, incorporating a range of improvements over the baseline Pantsir S, and its predecessor, the 2S6M Tunguska M SPAAG/SAM system.

This family of systems combines the 2A38M 30 mm automatic cannon system with the high velocity 9M311M two stage CLOS missile.

The 9M311M series SAM is unusual in it class as it is a two stage weapon, designed for exceptionally high acceleration to effect snapshots against fleeting targets such as heicopters. Compared to the earlier 9M311 variants, the higher impulse booster stage pushes the second stage to 1,100 m/s. KBP are marketing the system as a capability to engage and destroy the full spectrum of airborne targets, comprising aircraft, UAVs, cruise missiles, precision guided weapons, ballistic missiles and soft skinned surface targets.

KBP define the basic capabilities of the Pantsir series thus:
  • High jamming immunity in intensive ECM environment;
  • High survivability in massive employment of HARM-type antiradar missiles;
  • A capability of destroying high precision weapons, such as Tomahawk cruise missile, Walleye 2 guided air bomb, Maverick guided missile etc.;
  • A capability of engaging fixed- and rotary- wing aircraft, RPVs, etc.;
  • Effectiveness at any time of night and day, in good and adverse weather;
  • High mobility, specifically for protecting motorized and armor units;
  • High availability and reliability.
The Pantsir S introduced a 12 round missile capability, a thermal imaging system to complement the optical tracker, and revised engagement radar component.

While the Pantsir series is offered on a tracked chassis like the Tunguska, it has been primarily marketed in the road mobile configuration, which is less costly to acquire and maintain, and trades away off-road mobility for much higher 90 km/h  road speed.

The Pantsir S1 introduces a number of important improvements over the baseline Pantsir S. The new 9M335/57E6 missile replaces the established 9M331 series, this weapon provide 20 km range, 70% more than the 9M331M1, a significantly higher maximum target altitude, challenging many area defence missiles, a larger 20 kg warhead, and more thrust to accelerate the missile to 1,300 m/s in 2 seconds. The radar package is also replaced, with a new planar array (claimed to be a PESA) search radar, and an X-band engagement radar derived from Phazotron's fighter phased arrays.

The new engagement radar is claimed to have a 45° off boresight deflection angle, yielding coverage inside a 90° solid angle, with mechanical elevation to provide up to 85° of vertical angular coverage. It can track 20 targets and automatically prioritise the top three for engagement, and four missiles can be concurrently gathered and tracked.

An opto-electronic search and tracking function is provides, in the midwave and shortwave infrared bands. The missiles can be alternately tracked by the engagement radar or the OE system. A digital datalink is provide to permit networking multiple Pantsir S1 systems in a battery.

The Pantsir has been ordered by the UAE, Syria and Algeria. European sources claim the PLA and Greece are negotiating for the system. The system is offered on the 8x8 KAMAZ-6560, 8x8 MZKT-7930 and tracked GM 352M1E chassis.

Further analysis can be found under KBP 96K6 Pantsir S/S1 / SA-22  SPAAGM.

Stowed configuration for transit. The SA-22 lives up to its name, providing very high mobility. The most recent Pantsir S1 variant has a PESA engagement radar and a planar array search radar antenna, with much better sidelobe performance compared to the concave reflective design in the Pantsir S.

Pantsyr S1 launching a missile on a test range (KBP).

Basic Characteristics (KBP)
Armament missile/gun
Ammunition load, pcs
   ready-to-fire missiles 12
   30mm rounds 1400
Control system multiple-band
Aircraft engagement zone, m:
   by missiles:
      altitude 5-10000
   by guns:
      range 200-4000
Reaction time, s 4-6
Number of targets simultaneously fired at 2
Fire on the move by SAMs and guns provided
(for CV on tracked chassis)

Basic tactical and technical characteristics of the "Shlem" weapon control system (Phazotron)
RANGE, m 5

KBP 2K22M1/2S6M1 Tunguska-M1/ SA-19 Grison SPAAGM

The modernised 2S6M1 Tunguska M1 employs a planar array search radar, and a distinctive radome for the engagement radar component.

First introduced in 1982, the Tunguska series of hybrid SPAAG/SAM systems was deployed by the PVO-SV to provide a replacement for the legacy ZSU-23-4P, which despite its success in Vietnam and the Middle East, was recognised as vulnerable to the then new A-10 Thunderbolt, and to helicopters firing anti-armour missiles, such as the Hellfire equipped AH-64A Apache. From the Soviet perspective, both of these threats would popu up briefly above the radar/visual horizon, fire at Soviet tanks or SPAAGs, and then disappear below the horizon before the ZSU-23-4P or Romb / SA-8 systems could respond with defensive weapon fire.

The Soviets needed a weapon system which could win in a 'high noon' shootout with the A-10 or a nap-of-ther-earth pop-up rotary wing threat. This became one of the defining requirements for the Tunguska, and led to the development of the high speed 9M311 SAM, intended to cross the distance between the Tunguska and the target before the latter could hide below the horizon line. This capability would be supplemented by a 30 mm gun system, the Soviets clearly coveting the BundesWehr's Krauss-Maffei Wegmann FLAKPanzer Gepard SPAAG.

The missile requirement led to the unusual two stage 9M311 design, in which the first stage boosted the round to 900 m/s at burnout, the sustainer in the terminal stage burning to impact and maintaing a 600 m/s velocity. The missile employs command link guidance, with an automatic Command to Line Of Sight (CLOS) control loop for the terminal phase to impact, with an 18G capability. The engagement radar component of the 1RL144M Hot Shot system is claimed to operate in the millimetric band, using jam resistant monopulse angle tracking; a 1A29M optical sight is boresighted with the radar. A 1RL138 IFF system is included. Conceptually the 2S6 missile package has its closest Western equivalents in the Franco-German Roland system, and the UK Rapier Blindfire and Seawold systems.

The gun requirement led to the adaptation of  the 30 mm GSh-30 aircraft cannon, carried by Russian fighters: the 2A38 series liquid cooled 30 mm gun delivers a rate of fire of 1950-2500 rds/min, a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s, using the 2A42 cartridge and 0.39 kg projectile.

The initial 1982 2S6 Tunguska variant was superceded by the 2K22M/2S6M Tunguska M in 1990, and the 2K22M1/2S6M1 Tunguska M1 in 2003. The product line has been further developed as the Pantsir S, primarily in a road mobile configuration.

The 9M113-M1 SAM has a higher impulse booster, and radio rather than laser fusing to improve effect against cruise missiles and precision guided munitions. Defeating the latter has become one of the primary requirements for late variants of the 2S6 and the newer Pantsir S.

Within the region, the Tunguska has been acquired by India, with claims that Burma also acquired the system.

Further analysis can be found under KBP 96K6 Pantsir S/S1 / SA-22  SPAAGM.

Basic Characteristics
Armament missile/gun
Ammunition load, pcs
   ready-to-fire missiles 8
   30mm rounds 1904
Control system radar-optical
Aircraft engagement envelope, m:
   by missiles:
      range 2500-10000
      altitude 15-3500
   by guns:
      range up to 4000
      altitude up to 3000
Combat vehicle weight, t

Almaz-Antey/Kupol 9K331M/M1 Tor M/M1 SA-15B/C Gauntlet Air Defense Missile System

Tor M1 / SA-15B Gauntlet system (Kupol JSC).

The 9K331 Tor-M1 / SA-15 Gauntlet system, a highly mobile rapid reaction SAM built to replace the Cold War era SA-8 Gecko system. Like the SA-8 Gecko, the Tor M1 TELAR is a fully self contained package, with a search radar, a monopulse tracking and engagement radar, and a magazine of Automatic Command to Line Of Sight guided missiles. The design aims of the Gauntlet were however broader than those for the Gecko, and not only are low flying aircraft and helicopters intended targets, but also cruise missiles, standoff missiles and smart bombs during their terminal flight phase. Russian thinking is that S-300PMU/S-400 battery elements such as radars and command posts are to be covered by Gauntlet point defence systems, intended to engage and destroy guided munitions targeting the S-300PMU/S-400 battery elements.

The Gauntlet is carried on a GM-355 or GM-5955 series tracked chassis. The E/F-band folding surveillance radar is carried on the top of the turret, and the G/H-band engagement radar, claimed to be a phased array design, is mounted on the front. Eight vertically launched 9K331 SAM rounds are carried in sealed magazines, these are vertically ejected before ignition using the cold launch technique. Once clear of the TELAR, the canard missiles use nose rocket thrusters to pitch over in the direction of the target and effect the engagement. Reaction time to threats is credited in seconds between track confirmation and launch.

While in conceptual terms the Gauntlet compares well to the Franco-German Roland, the missile is more advanced and the TELAR far more capable than the Roland ever could be.

Tor M1 system launching a missile. The Tor series uses the 'cold launch' technique, whereby the round is ejected vertically from the tube, and once clear ignites its motor. Note the nose mounted thrusters used to rapidly pivot the missile in the direction of the target.

The current production Tor M1 variant incorporates a range of design improvements over the baseline Tor/Tor M variants.

A towed semi-mobile variant of the Tor M1 is on offer, sacrificing mobility for lower cost (Rosoboronexport).

During the 1990s the PLA procured the Russian 9K331M1 Tor-M1 / SA-15C Gauntlet system. Chinese sources put the SA-15 inventory at around 25 systems, deployed with the 31st and 38th Army Groups. The Russians have exported this system to Greece and Iran.

A more detailed discussion of the design of this system can be found under Kupol 9K330/9K331/9K332 Tor M/M1/M2 Self Propelled Air Defence System / SA-15 Gauntlet.


  SA-15C Gauntlet of the PLA deployed with search radar fully elevated.

Tor M1 Specifications

Almaz-Antey/Kupol 9K331MK2/MU2 Tor M2/M2E SA-15 Gauntlet Air Defense Missile System

The Russian Tor M2 or SA-15D Gauntlet is by far the most capable point defence SAM system deployed by Russia and its clientele. It is used to defend against low flying aircraft as well as cruise missiles and guided weapons like smart bombs. It is available on a tracked chassis, and more recently, a purpose designed semi-hardened MZKT-6922 6 x 6 all terrain vehicle. Depicted deployed configuration (Kupol JSC).

The Tor M2/M2E is a 'deep modernisation' of the baseline Tor M1 weapon system, available on the legacy tracked chassis, or the entirely new low profile wheeled
MZKT-6922 6 x 6 chassis as the 9A331MK, the latter specifically developed by the ByeloRussian manufacturer for this application. Russian sources claim the Russian MoD sought the same KAMAZ chassis as used with the SA-22 / Pantsir S1, but the manufacturer was unhappy with the overall height and hardness of the vehicle, and contracted MZKT in Minsk to develop a new vehicle. The MZKT-6922 is semi-hardened, and intended to protect the crew and systems from small arms fire, shrapnel and spall. The new vehicle weighs 17 tonnes, with a maximum gross weight of 30 tonnes. It is powered by a 420 SHP YaMZ-7513.10 diesel, using an MZKT GMP-400 transmission, delivering a road speed of 80 km/h.

The Tor M2E has an improved weapon system. The new planar array surveillance radar can track up to 48 targets concurrently, retaining the range performance of the legacy system. The revised phased array engagement radar uses new phase shifters, and is capable of tracking targets within a claimed 30° solid angle around the antenna boresight. Paired command link antennas are mounted on both sides of the array, used to acquire the missiles post launch, while they are out of the field of view of the engagement radar array. Missiles can be launched 2 seconds apart. The manufacturer has identified the missile design as an area of future improvement, the turret permitting the carriage of a large number of smaller and lighter future missiles.

The envisaged Tor M2E battery structure comprises four 9A331MK TELARs, one 9S737MK Ranzhir-MK mobile command post, two 9T244 transloader vehicles, and one 9V887M2K engineering support vehicle.

While the Tor M2E offers incremental gains in system capability, its key advance over earlier variants is its much higher in-theatre mobility, and intra-theatre deployability, making it a much more practical asset for defending infrastructure targets than the legacy Tor/Tor-M1 variants, optimised to escort armoured battlefield manouvre formations. The Tor M2E is well suited for the envisaged role of protecting fixed targets and highly mobile S-300PMU2/S-400 missile batteries from PGM attack.

A more detailed discussion of the design of this system can be found under Kupol 9K330/9K331/9K332 Tor M/M1/M2 Self Propelled Air Defence System / SA-15 Gauntlet.

The improved Tor M2E variant is to deploy with Russian PVO-SV units in 2009, and has been marketed on a purpose designed 6 x 6 MZKT-6922 wheeled vehicle. Images depict stowed configuration (Kupol JSC images).

Almaz-Antey High Energy Laser Directed Energy Weapon

Left: Almaz beam director optical turret mounted on a MAZ-7930 8 x 8  chassis, the turret is  located on the turntable otherwise employed for  the  30N6 radar.  Centre: Primary optical aperture for  beam director. Right: Carbon Dioxide Gas Dynamic Laser (GDL) bank testbed. Note the hardstand used to support the MAZ-7930 chassis.

Target drone engagement using the HEL GDL demonstrator. (1) shows target before illumination, (2) shows target being illuminated, and (3) shows target breakup following a successful hit. Almaz-Antey have not disclosed the range of this trial or the emitted CW power level of the GDL.

The interest in the use of High Energy Laser (HEL) Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) observed in the US, EU and Israel is paralleled by a development effort at Almaz-Antey aimed at trialling HEL DEW technology for air defence applications.

Little has been disclosed by Almaz-Antey on the detail of this program. It clearly intended to build up expertise and experience across the whole spectrum of necessary capabilities, in this instance beam director optics, adaptive optics, tracking capabilities, and high continuous wave power level laser designs.

The laser depicted is a CO2 Gas Dynamic Laser (GDL), the same technology used by the US Air Force during the 1990s Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL) program. It operates in the LWIR band at 10.6 microns, and is operationally attractive due to its simple fuel supply in comparison with Deuterium Fluoride (DF) and Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL). What is less attractive about CO2 GDLs is that tropospheric CO2 molecules increase propagation losses, and aluminium, the primary structural material in many potential targets, has a very high reflectance in this band, thus reducing power coupling efficiency into the target, and increasing dwell time.

What has not been disclosed by Almaz-Antey is the progress on this project, especially in the critical area of adaptive optics and wavefront sensor technology for controlling adaptive mirrors. GDL technology is relatively mature, and derivative chemical laser designs will be largely determined by Russian capabilities in developing power modules for a given laser type. The choice of CO2 GDL may have been simply determined by its availability and low risk, as a means of demonstrating and proving other more sensitive system components.

An operational HEL DEW air defence system will emerge only once the laser and beam director technology has matured to the point where a robust deployable design can be built. Given the Russian penchant for robustness and incremental evolution of designs, it is not difficult to postulate a configuration for such a system:

  1. Beam Director Platform (BDP): an evolution of the existing demonstrator carried on an 8 x 8 MZKT-7930, or towed by an MZKT-7930 in an articulated semi-trailer arrangement.
  2. HEL Power Stage System (PSS): ideally integrated on the BDP vehicle to maximise mobility, but may need to be carried separately if volume is too great, the latter impairing mobility.
  3. Engagement Radar System: a derivative of the existing 92N2E Grave Stone carried on an 8 x 8 MZKT-7930.
  4. Fuel Supply Vehicles: 8 x 8 MZKT-7930, probably based on an existing fuel tanker.

The CONOPS for such a system would be similar to the US Army MTHEL system, although it is likely the Russians will pursue a fully mobile configuration, consistent with their doctrine for SAM systems (refer below). It is likely that a key role of such a DEW would be the interception of PGMs, this placing the weapon system firmly in the domain of point defence.

Until we see further disclosures from the Russian MoD or Almaz-Antey, a more detailed assessment of this system is not feasible. Given the sensitivity of HEL weapon lethality performance to operating wavelength and beam quality, any predictions of achievable range performance would be at best speculative. For a system to be operationally effective, a sustained power output of the order of a MegaWatt would be required.

Above: US Army Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) beam director turret. Below: THEL ACTD CONOPS.

US Navy MIRACL beam director turret.

Ranets E High Power Microwave Directed Energy Weapon

The Ranets E is a High Power Microwave (HPM) weapon system intended to produce electrically lethal damage or disruption and dysfunction in opposing airborne systems, be they aircraft or guided munitions in flight. The system was first disclosed by Rosoboronexport in 2001, but little technical detail has been disclosed since then.

The weapon uses an X-band pulsed 500 MegaWatt HPM source, generating 10 to 20 nanosecond pulses at a 500 Hz PRF, and average output power of 2.5 to 5 kiloWatts. The antenna is large enough to provide a gain of 45 to 50 dB in the X-band, for a total weapon weight of 5 tonnes. The weapon has been described as a "radio-frequency cannon" and Russian sources credit it with a lethal range of 20 miles against the electronic guidance systems of PGMs and aircraft avionic systems.

Plot - Author 31/05/2008.

The cited lethal range figures are predicated on the assumption that the target is vulnerable to a field strength of the order of ~1.0 kiloVolt/m and the antenna has a gain between 45 and 50 dBi. If we assume target hardness for typical COTS electronics, the lethal radius is between 3.8 and 7.0 nautical miles, if the target hardness is greater, the lethal footprint is reduced accordingly. What is clear is that the Ranets E will be a credible electrically lethal weapon at ranges typical for a terminal point defence weapon weapon.

The product brochure for the weapon shows its deployment on the MAZ-7910 chassis using the 54K6 command post cabin to house the Ranets system, with an roof mounted turntable for the steerable parabolic antenna. Other lower quality illustrations (not reproduced) show the Ranets E vehicle linked via cables to a 85V6 Vega/Orion Emitter Locating System (ELS) used as the targeting element. In the absence of an integrated targeting system on the Ranets E - problematic due to the risk of fratricide as even sidelobes would be electrically lethal at short ranges - it is likely that an operational system would be remotely aimed by another asset. Other than an ELS a SAM system engagement radar with sufficient angular accuracy would be suitable.

The CONOPS for the system would involve attaching one or more Ranets E systems to a battery of SAMs and integrating them with the battery fire control system, such that the Ranets E systems would be cued, aimed and fired remotely.

The APA illustration shows the system deployed on the MZKT-7930 chassis as that is the current production replacement for the original MAZ-7910.

Legacy Point Defence Systems

9K33/9K33M2/M3 Osa AK/AKM / Romb / SA-8 Gecko Air Defense Missile System

(JSC Kupol images)

Technical analysis and development history can be found under 9K33 Osa/Romb / SA-8 Gecko, upgrades under 9K33/9K33M2/M3 Osa/Romb / SA-8 Gecko SAM  System Upgrades.

Modernised Osa 1T launch (Image © Miroslav Gyűrösi).

Сравнительные характеристики ЗРК «Оса»,  «Оса-АК» и «Оса-АКМ»

Principal Manufacturer

Основной разработчик НИЭМИ
Year of Service Acceptance

Год принятия на вооружение 1972 1975 1980
Engagement Range, km

Зона поражения по дальности, км 2-9 1,5-10 1,5-10
Engagement Altitude, km

Зона поражения по высоте, км 0,05-5 0,025-5 0,025-5

Курсовой параметр, км 4-6 до 6 до 6
Single Shot Kill Probability

Вероятность поражения одной ЗУР


   самолета 0,35-0,85 0,5-0,85 0,5-0,85

   вертолета 0,3-0,4 до 0,45 0,6-0,85
   cruise missile

   КР до 0,4 до 0,4 до 0,6
   ballistic missile

   БР - - -

   ДПЛА до 0,7 до 0,8 до 0,8
Maximum target speed, m/s

Максимальная скорость цели, м/с до 420 до 500 до 500
Reaction time, sec

Время реакции, с 26-34 26-34 26-34
System weight, kg

Масса БМ, кг около 1900 около 1900 18680
Missile/warhead weight, kg

Масса ЗУР/БЧ, кг 128/15 128/15 128/15
Deployment/stow time, min

Время перевода в боевое/походное положение, мин 3-5/3-5 3-5/3-5 3-5/3-5
Maximum road speed, km/h

Максимальная скорость движения, км/ч до 80 до 80 до 80

9K35M/M2/M3 Strela 10M/M2/M3 Gyurza / SA-13 Gopher SAM System

9A35M / SA-13 Gopher TELAR of the Czech Army, which acquired the system during the Cold War. The 9S86 Snap Shot rangefinding radar is located between the launchers (Czech Army).

The 9K35 / SA-13 Gopher was developed as a replacement for the 9K31 / SA-9 Gaskin, and was intended to provide a system with better mobility and a longer ranging and more lethal missile design. The system employs a coherent pulse Doppler millimetric band 9S86 Snap Shot range and radial velocity finding radar, with the 9A35 TELAR equipped with the 9S16 Flat Box-B radar warning and cueing sensor, and the 9A34 without it. Typically one 9A35 was deployed with three 9A34 TELARs. All TELARs carry four ready rounds and four stowed reloads.

A number of different missile variants are employed with this system. These include the baseline 9M37 Strela-10SV with a two colour infrared/visible band seeker deployed on the 9K35 TELAR from 1976, the 9K37M Strela-10M deployed on the 9K35M TELAR from 1979, and the 9K37M2 Strela-10M2 deployed on the 9K35M2 TELAR from 1981.

The last Cold War variant was the Strela-10M3 deployed on the 9K35M3 TELAR from 1989, this variant using the 9M333 missile which was supplied with three channel seeker, the first infrared, the second using a visible band television contrast lock design, and the third a passive homing channel intended to home on the emissions from jamming equipment. The 9M333 included a new autopilot and IR background rejection processing, as well as a laser proximity fuse with eight rather than four lobes for engaging small targets,and a larger and more lethal warhead. The 9K35M3 included an improved optical sighting system for the gunner with WFOV and NFOV modes.

A typical battery deploys four TELARS and a single PPRU-1/1M command post, often equipped with the X-band 9S80/9S80M/M1 Ovod / Dog Ear battery acquisition radar. A digital variant of the this command post, the PPRU-1M-2, has been recently displayed, equipped with an entirely new planar array solid state digital 9S80M1-2 radar.

This system was primarily exported to Warsaw Pact nations. Yugoslavia rehosted the system on an indigenous tracked chassis. A number of upgrades exist for the basic system, and the late model 9K35M3 Kolchan variant is also available on a wheeled 8 x 8 BTR-60 chassis.

A more detailed analysis can be found under 9K35 Strela 10 Self Propelled Air Defence System . Upgrades are discussed further under 9K35A Gyurza / Strela 10M / SA-13 Gopher SAM System Upgrades.

Launch of a 9M37M / SA-13 Gopher SAM (Russian MoD).

Основные характеристики ЗРК типа "Стрела-10"
Strela 10SV
Strela 10M
Strela 10M2
Strela 10M3
9A35M/9A34M 9A35M2/9A34M2 9A35M3/9A34M3
Зона поражения, км
Engagment Envelope [km]
- по дальности
- in range
- по высоте
- in altitude
- по параметру
до 3
до 3
до 3
до 3
Вероятность поражения истребителя одной ЗУР
Single Shot Pk for Fighter Type Target
Макс. скорость поражаемых целей (навстр./вдогон), м/с
Max veolicty of defeated target (approaching/receding) [m/s]
Скорость полета ЗУР, м/с
missile velocity [m/s]
Время реакции, с
Reaction time [s]
Масса ракеты, кг
Missile mass [kg]
Масса боевой части, кг
Warhead mass [kg]
Число ракет на боевой машине
Number of missiles on TELAR
4+4 4+4 4+4
Год принятия на вооружение
Table: Said Aminov Vestnik PVO

The PPRU-1/1M command post includes the X-band 9S80/9S80M/M1 Ovod / Dog Ear battery acquisition radar (RuMoD).

9K31/9K31M Strela 1/1M / SA-9A/B Gaskin

9K31M / SA-9B Gaskin on display at Kecel in Hungary. Note the reload tubes (Image © Miroslav Gyűrösi).

The 9K31 Strela 1 / SA-9 was the first Soviet heatseeking point defence SAM system. The fully self-propelled design was hosted on the 7 tonne amphibious BDRM-2/BTR-40 scout vehicle. It was deployed in concert with the ZSU-23-4P Shilka SPAAG, to provide the final layer of air defence capability for combined arms and armoured divisions.

The intent of the designers was to produce an equivalent to the US MIM-72A/M48 Chapparel, which was based on the AIM-9D Sidewinder heatseeking air-to-air missile and M113 APC. The 9M31 missile round was similar to the AIM-9B and K-13A / AA-2 Atoll, using canard controls, an uncooled infrared seeker, and slipstream driven tailfin stabilisers.

The 9K31/SA-9 Gaskin was very widely exported by the Soviets, and used operationally in the Middle East and Africa.

Captured 9K31M / SA-9B Gaskin on display at the Muzeyon Heyl ha-Avir, Hatzerim airbase, Israel in 2006 (Wikipedia image).

Croatian 9K31 / SA-9 Gaskin. A common Soviet practice was to deploy these systems in excavated ditches to deny early visual acquisition (via Vestnik PVO).

Основные характеристики ЗРК типа "Стрела-1"
Principal Characteristics SA-9 Gaskin
Зона поражения, км
Engagement Zone [km]
- по дальности
- in range
- по высоте
- in altitude
- по параметру
до 3
до 3,5
Вероятность поражения истребителя одной ЗУР
Single Shot Pk for Fighter Type Target
Макс. скорость поражаемых целей (навстр./вдогон), м/с
Max Velocity of destroyed target [m/s]
Скорость полета ЗУР, м/с
Missile Velocity [m/s]
Время реакции, с
Reaction time [s]
Масса ракеты, кг
Missile mass [kg]
Масса боевой части, кг
Warhead mass [kg]
Число ракет на боевой машине
Number of missiles on TEL
Год принятия на вооружение
Source: Vestnik PVO

Soviet era propaganda image of the 9K31M / SA-9B Gaskin (US DoD).

ZSU-23-4 Shilka SPAAG

ZSU-23-4 Shilka SPAAG.

The ZSU-23-4P Shilka was a mainstay of Red Army and Warsaw Pact air defences from the mid 1960s until the 1980s, when it was progressively replaced in Soviet service by the 2K22 Tunguska / SA-19 Grison.

The system is armed with four AZP-23 23 mm water cooled automatic guns. The X-band 1RL33 Tobol / Gun Dish radar provides an acquisition and fire control tracking capability for gunlaying.

Russian references list no less than eight variants, specifically the ZSU-23-4, ZSU-23-4V, ZSU-23-4M, ZSU-23-4M1, ZSU-23-4M2, ZSU-23-4M3, ZSU-23-4M4 and ZSU-23-4M5.

The ZSU-23-4M4 is detailed under upgrades.

Технические характеристики ЗСУ-23-4
Technical Characteristics of the ZSU-23-4
6,54 м
2,25 м
2,95 м
Боевая масса
Conbat weight
20,5 т
4х23 мм водяного охлаждения пушки АЗП-23
4 x 23 water cooled AZP-23 Guns
Максимальная дальность стрельбы
Maximum Range
2000 м
Минимальная дальность стрельбы
Minimum Range
200 м
Максимальная высота стрельбы
Maximum Altitude
1500 м
Минимальная высота стрельбы
Minimum Altitude
0 м
Ammo Load
2000 снарядов
Темп стрельбы
Rate of Fire
800-1000 выст/мин/ствол
Максимальная скорость движения
Maximum Speed
50 км/ч
Запас хода по шоссе
450 км
9,2 мм шасси, 8,3 мм башня
Table Said Aminov Vestnik PVO

A captured ZSU-23-4 on display in the US (US DoD).

PLA Point Defence Weapons [Click for more ...]

Technical Report APA-TR-2008-0502

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