Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0302
Updated September, 2009
Updated April, 2012
2009 - 2012
The 2007/2008 period saw an
important incremental improvement in what is already a formidable air defence capability, as the PLA deployed four
the S-300PMU-2 / SA-20 Gargoyle high mobility long range SAM system.
end of the Cold War, to deploy a
multi-layered Integrated Air Defence
Union collapsed in 1991, China's air defence
capabilities were of debatable effectiveness, built around indigenous
the Soviet S-75 Dvina / SA-2 Guideline, and indigenous fighter aircraft
the Chengdu J-8 Finback, in addition to vast numbers of 1950s and 1960s
technology J-6 Farmer and J-7 Fishbed
capabilities centred on cloned 1950s
equipment, some pre-Tienamen Western
imports, and a
stalled indigenous AEW&C program centred
turboprop engined Tu-4 Bull / B-29 Superfortress airframe.
changed over the following decade and a half. While the SA-2 remains
numerically significant, it has been modernised.
/ Gargoyle long range SAMs
have been acquired in strategically
numbers. The Tor M1 / SA-15 has been reported, and a range of
indigenous short to
medium range SAMs have been developed. The
Y-8 and KJ-2000 / A-50 AEW&C programs are well into advanced
and strategically significant numbers of the Su-27SK / J-11 and Su-30MK
been deployed, while the indigenous “Sinocanard”
PLA's air defence
are transforming from a legacy force with static and undeployable
systems, to a state of the art force, which is highly deployable in
demonstrably expeditionary as it matures. This evolution in
been sufficient to elicit alarm in many US analysts, recognising
that legacy fighters such as the F-15C/E and F/A-18C-F have very poor
surviving if they need to penetrate the emerging PLA IADS.
the export market, these including the HQ-9 and HQ-12. There are
speculative reports that Iran is to procure the HQ-9, following reports
that numerous HQ-2 batteries were procured.
and Derivative Missile Systems
CPMIEC HQ-9 /
TEL using the Taian TAS-5380 chassis. Additional image  (via Chinese Internet).
developed to provide a long range SAM capability, distinct from the
range capabilities of the HQ-12/KS-1 series. The FT-2000 is a derivative which is fitted with an anti-radiation
intended for engagements against AEW&C/AWACS and stand-off jamming
aircraft. The US DoD puts current
deployments at 64
launchers, making for 8 to 16 batteries.
The PLA have
not been overly generous in disclosing details of this design. There is
agreement in open sources that the HQ-9 uses Russian S-300PMU
extensively, including the cold launch design for vertical ejection
launcher tubes on TELs, 5V55/48N6 rocket
technology, and a range of other S-300PMU components, including an 8 x
tube TEL modelled on the 5P85SU/DU series.
sources claim the weapon uses a two stage
akin to the S-300V, imagery shows these claims to be incorrect. Slant
range performance figures also vary across sources,
and 100 nautical miles. What data is available suggests a missile which
similar in capability to early variants of the MIM-104 Patriot and
48N6E, including Track via Missile (TVM) guidance.
The HQ-9 is
supported by the HT-233 phased array engagement radar, like the H-200 modelled on the MPQ-53 and 30N6E designs,
carried on an Taian
TAS5380 8 x 8 high mobility
vehicle, or common to the
and similar in design to the S-400's BAZ-6900 series vehicle.
Chinese sources claim C-band operation with 300 MHz receiver/antenna
detection range of 65 nautical miles, and monopulse
angle tracking to resist jamming. Recently disclosed imagery shows the
use of the self-propelled YLC-2V as the
battery acquisition radar component. The designation FD-2000 is
for export configurations of the HQ-9.
Recent reports claim the missile combines midcourse inertial / datalink
and terminal active radar homing guidance. Cited battery composition is
one variant of the YLC-2V acquisition radar, one HT-233
engagement radar, 8 x Taian
TELs, with 32 ready rounds, one vehicle for battery positioning, one
generator vehicle, one support vehicle and a mobile command post. A
HQ-9 brigade level formation comprises six batteries.
The HHQ-9 is the navalised variant of the HQ-9, launched from a VLS
system, on the Type 052B/C Luhai II class DDG.
US DoD, the FT-2000 has yet to be
deployed, as is the
case with the follow-on HQ-9 variants. Open sources describe the FT2000
as an inertially guided SAM with an
seeker, programmed before launch for the characteristics of the
target. Cited frequency coverage is 2-18 GHz. Each battery includes
four ESM vehicles, used to generate
data for the missile battery. Intended targets including support
jamming aircraft, aircraft equipped with self-protection jammers, and
other radiating airborne targets, e.g. AWACS/AEW&C.
FT-2000 is derived from the HQ-9, claims that this weapon has not been
should be treated with caution, since the missile and its guidance
package could have been integrated into the baseline HQ-9 system
other than by covert intelligence gathering or PLA disclosure, this
easily determined by simple observation. It is entirely conceivable
that a HQ-9
battery could be armed with a mix of HQ-9 /FD-2000 and FT-2000 rounds,
only be determined in combat once missiles are actually launched and
their terminal guidance phase.
HQ-16 / SA-11 Gadfly
Gadfly (Chinese internet).
Very little has been disclosed
to date on the HQ-16 SAM system. Most sources describe it to be a joint
PLA-Russian evolution of the SA-11 Gadfly or SA-17 Grizzly medium range
semi-active radar homing SAM. The PLA-N deployed the VLS 9K37/9M317M
Yozh / SA-N-12 Grizzly on the Type 956EM Sovremmeniy class DDGs under
the designation HHQ-16.
More recent imagery of a SAM mockup suggests the HQ-16 is a licenced
derivative of the baseline 9M38 Gadfly missile using the long chord
short span cruciform strake design, rather than the 9M317 series
missile airframe. This is consistent with the Russian practice of
licencing the PLA for the production of equipment variants no longer
built for Russian use. Imagery of a six round TEL on a 6 x 6 chassis
has also emerged, the cold launch vertical ejection tubes being of
suitable size for such a SAM. Given the use of this technology in the
9K37 naval variant, adaptation for a wheeled TEL would not be difficult.
Russian tracked and wheeled TELARs for the SA-11/17 missile systems
incorporate either an X-band MSA or PESA engagement radar with an FMCW
illuminator capability for the semi-active homing missile seeker.
Neither of the PLA TELs have such a facility, suggesting the engagement
radar is on a dedicated vehicle. It is not known what engagement and
search radars are intended for use with the HQ-16. These would likely
be carried on the same 6 x 6 chassis used for the missile TELs.
Missile kinematic performance is likely to be similar to late model
claimed to be of a six round HQ-16 VLS TEL. The frame structure for the
launch tubes is cumbersome and would not permit a rapid reload
capability unless all six rounds are replenished in a single operation
CNPIPC / CEIEC
/ CASIC KS-1A Kai Shan 1 / HQ-12
H-200 engagement radar and
KS-1A TEL. China's indigenous
HQ-12 / KS-1A best compares in capabilities to the US RIM-66 SM-1/SM-2
The H-200 phased array engagement radar is available in semi-mobile
configuration (depicted) or a fully mobile arrangement resembling the
30N6. Static launchers are
HQ-12 is now being deployed with PLA air defence
units, and the US DoD puts the number of
launchers at 60 units. Developed to replace the HQ-2, the HQ-12 has
observed in a number of variants, these including static rail launchers
derived from the HQ-2 design, a 6x6 road mobile TEL also derived from
launcher, and a road mobile Patriot like box launcher.
to the RIM-66
in general layout, but with a very short span delta wing design more
akin the the US Hawk. The rail launchers
are conceptually similar to
the underslung SM-1 rail launcher. Missile
performance is cited at a maximum range of 27 nautical miles, maximum
of 80 kft, and a maximum load factor of
capability against 4-5 G targets. The nearest equivalent US missile is
RIM-66 SM-1 and SM-2 series, the KS-1 falls between the SM-1 and SM-2
performance, and it is about 20 percent larger and 40 percent heavier
package, but since then
phased array engagement radar has been disclosed as the primary
of the KS-1A system. This phased array compares closely in
configuration to the
US MPQ-53 Patriot and Russian 30N6E series engagement radars, and is
either as a static relocatable
installation, or a
fully road mobile design on a 6x6 truck. Chinese sources claim a high
resistance to jamming, which is credible given the phased array design
The alternative engagement radar offered is the
fully mobile SJ-231 phased
Candidate acquisition radars for KS-1A batteries include the JY-11/JY-11B
and the JYL-1.
like the J-10 fighter,
China's technological capability to compete in the design of modern
HQ-12 TEL in new
“pixelated” disruptive camouflage
pattern (Chinese internet).
|KS-1A Missile Performance Specifications
Detail of KS-1A launcher (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
Detail of KS-1A launcher (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
Detail of KS-1A launcher (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio).
An alternate TEL arrangement uses elevating box launchers
containing one KS-1A round. The status of this variant has not been
disclosed to date.
is an alternate
radar for the KS-1A/HQ-12 SAM system, based on the HT-233 PESA antenna
and cabin design. Cited performance is virtually identical to the
H-200. Unlike the towed H-200, the SJ-231 is self propelled, but unlike
the HT-233 it is split across a pair of 6 x 6 or 8 x 8 vehicles.
Gin Sling A. This radar is associated with the HQ-2 and early variants
of the KS-1, and is a derivative of the SNR-75 Fan Song series.
2FA(B)/ ZD-2(B)/HQ-2BE / SNR-75A /
HQ-2 and HQ2J Guideline
WXZ204 HQ-2B Tracked Surface-to-Air Missile
Early model cloned
S-75 on display at Datangshan (Zhenguan Studio, © 2010 Air Power
built derivatives of the Soviet SA-2 Guideline were, until the arrival
SA-10/20, the numerically most important SAM system in PLA service.
official US estimates put the remaining inventory at more than 60
for a total of about 400 single rail launchers.
early variants of the S-75 were the only then modern weapons China
with a mere 6 batteries in service. These comprised the standard static
transportable semi-mobile rail launchers, the S-band Fan Song
radars, and the VHF band P-12 Spoon Rest acquisition radars. China's 5th Research
Academy of the Ministry of Defence subsequently
reverse engineered this hardware and started the manufacture of the
HQ-1 (Hong Qi-1) , a
cloned S-75 system. By 1966 an improved HQ-1, the HQ-2 was introduced,
incremental upgrades to the HQ-2A during the 1970s, and HQ-2B during
the 1980s, the final variant being the HQ-2J.
Two engagement radars are associated with the HQ-2, both derivatives of
the SNR-75 Fan Song series. These are the SJ-202 Gin Sling A and the
2FA(B) Gin Sling B.
G capability, better warhead,
command link for guidance with crypto capability, a monopulse
engagement radar capability for jam resistant angle tracking, and
electro-optical angle tracking.
stated long term intent is to replace the
HQ-2 with the indigenous
HQ-12/KS-1A SAM, as a second tier supplement to the Russian S-300PMU
There is some evidence which suggests
that hybridisation of legacy HQ-2
with new generation H-200
PESA engagement radars may have occured. This remains to be validated
by official disclosures or more detailed technical evidence.
Above deployed HQ-2A
the reverse engineered SM-90 launchers and PR-11AM
transporter/transloader. Below a HQ-2A battery on display.
Fuelling a HQ-2 round with the toxic and
propellant mix. Protective gear is required for personnel.
WXZ204 HQ-2B TEL.
WXZ204 HQ-2B TEL in
WXZ204 tracked launcher was developed for the HQ-2B Surface-To-Air
Missile. During the 1979
Sino-Vietnamese War, Chinese troops would not advance beyond air
coverage envelope afforded by their fixed HQ-1/HQ-2 SAM belt inside
China. To alleviate this problem by
SAM coverage for PLA forces operating on China’s periphery, development
started in 1980 of a tracked launcher for the HQ-2 SAM, based on the
clone of the Soviet SM-90 sem-mobile launcher. It
the army, and if
it had been available during the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War, would have
integrated into the Chinese air defence system utilising Fan Song or
engagement radars deployed inside China.
vehicle used a lengthened Type 63 amphibious tank chassis with an
road wheelproviding a total of
the missile loaded it weighs 26 tonnes, with the missile weighing
2,200kg. Two prototypes were built, but it does
not appear as yet to have entered production.
weapons system’s overall length when travelling was 13.235 m including
3.2m wide and 4.5m high. The hull
height was 1.57m. The diesel
engine produced 293 kW and a torque of 70.8 kN, and gave the vehicle a
road speed of 42.9 km/hr and a maximum road range of 250km. The low top speed and range suggest
that the engine was taxed moving the vehicle.
missile was mounted on its SM-90 derived static launcher, which was
for fitting on the vehicle hull. It was able to traverse through 3600
, although it would normally be
facing the vehicle front as the huge folding stabiliser at the rear of
acted as a flame and heat deflector. Two
were attached to relevant air defence equipment. It
was not capable of firing at an
aircraft independently and a battery of these with its attendant
generators and control vehicles would occupy a considerable piece of
On the move, the missile
would be vulnerable to
damage, both due to enemy fire and accidental. As
- Inhibited Red Fuming Nitric Acid)
oxidiser, any leak
catastrophic to any vehicle or person that is exposed to its highly
properties. Moreover, the TG02 /
samin fuel will spontaneously ignite when in contact with the oxidiser.
or vehicle commander and crew would like to be carrying one in the
A engagement radar.
There is some evidence which suggests that
hybridisation of legacy HQ-2 batteries with new generation H-200 PESA
engagement radars may have occurred. This would significantly increase
jam resistance of the battery and permit more concurrent missile
(via R.D. Fisher).
The RWE-1 is a radio-frequency band active MAWS intended to protect SAM
batteries from attack by anti-radiation missiles such as the AGM-88
HARM/AARGM series. It is employed to trigger emitter shutdown and
activation of active emitting decoys. The manufacturer's brochure
claims a detection range of 40 km / 21.6 NMI.
DF capability is likely to be via
amplitude comparison between channels, providing ~10° DF accuracy,
adequate for cueing decoys, or cueing point defence weapons like the LD-2000
acquire, track and engage the inbound missiles.
Area Defence Missile Systems
Almaz-Antey S-300PMU-2 Favorit
/ SA-20B Gargoyle
PLA 5P85TE TELs deployed in revetments.
The last of
S-300P derivatives to carry the S-300P designation, the S-300PMU-2 Favorit adds further capabilities. According to
the US DoD, the PLA has deployed 32
launchers for a total of 4 to
Favorit is an incrementally enhanced
encompassing the 30N6E2 Flap Lid, 64N6E2 Big Bird, 54K6E2 command post, and
interfaces and software to control legacy missile batteries, such as
the S-200VE/SA-5 Gammon. It
is intended to
compete directly against the Antey S-300V
Patriot PAC-2/3 systems as an Anti-Ballistic Missile system. The new LEMZ
96L6E search radar
is available as an option with the Favorit.
to be able to threaten
over Taiwan if the missile batteries are deployed along the coastline.
Almaz S-300PMU-1 / SA-20A Gargoyle
5P58TE TELs on parade.
designated the SA-10D Grumble, and later redesignated
the SA-20 Gargoyle, the S-300PMU-1 was a “deep modernisation”
US DoD puts
current PLA inventory at 64 launchers, for a total of 8 to 16 batteries.
S-300PMU-1 retained improved Flap Lid, Clam Shell, and 5P58TE/DE TELs, it introduced two major new improvements,
match or outperform the Patriot PAC-1 and PAC-2 configurations. The
first was a
new missile design, the 80 nautical mile range 48N6, with a seeker
engaging 0.02 square metre targets.
the PLA deployed, but it
now supplemented with the more effective S-300PMU-2.
Almaz S-300PMU / SA-10B(C) Grumble
S-300PMU/PMU1 5P85SU TEL of the PLA stowed
deploying. Early model TELs used an arrangement with a 'smart' TEL each
controlling a pair of 'dumb' TELs. In more recent configurations all
TELs are 'smart' and autonomous (Chinese internet images).
was the first of the S-300 family of missiles to be procured by the
the US DoD puts current launcher numbers
making for 4 to 8 deployable missile batteries. This system is the
configuration of the high mobility Soviet S-300PM (P- PVO, M - Modified) system, a deep upgrade based on the
S-300PS / SA-10B Grumble, itself successor to the Patriot-like
semi-mobile S-300PT. This subtype
is designated as an SA-10C in the literature.
best compares to earlier variants of the US Patriot system, but with
important difference that the S-300PMU is highly mobile,
with all key battery elements carried on MAZ-7900/543 variant 8x8
common to the Scud TEL. The S-300PS/PM/PMU was the first true “shoot
SAM system to be deployed, specifically built to evade the F-4G Wild
When the export variant was defined, a towed semitrailer TEL was introduced, the 5P85T with a KrAZ-260B tractor,
self-contained electrical power supply and masted
radio datalink for remote launch control
of TELs. Excluding mast mounted
components, the battery could
deploy or stow itself in 5 minutes or less.
link guided missiles in the S-300PT were supplanted by TVM guided
nautical mile range 5V55KD and 5V55R rounds. With all altitude coverage
S-300PS/PMU was a formidable system, capable of threatening the full
conventional combat aircraft, and providing the impetus for the
the F-117A and B-2A stealth aircraft.
from “How the PLA Fights:
Weapons and Tactics of the People’s Liberation Army” published by the
United States Army’s Training and Doctrine Command. Additions and
updates by Dr Carlo Kopp.
wan changgong fa
tienlang ___ Zhongguo yanzhi
WXZ204 ludai shi hog qi
jidong’, Tanke zhuangjia cheliangi,
2008 Niandi, 6 Qi, Zhongdi 266,
 Andrei Chang, Analysis: China exports new SAM
missile, United Press International, 18th March, 2009, URL:
Imagery Sources: Chinese
Line Artwork: © 2000, 2007,
Technical Report APA-TR-2009-0103