The 2K22 Tunguska
/ 96K6 Pantsir / SA-19 Grison / SA-22 Greyhound family of SPAAGMs owes
earliest origins to a 1970 directive for the replacement of the
ubiquitous ZSU-23-4P SPAAG. The ZSU-23-4P was considered both
lethal and effective by its Western opponents, but Soviet analysts were
unimpressed with the lethality and the engagement envelope of the
23 mm weapons. Analysis indicated that a 30 mm gun would be much
more lethal. Soviet operational analysis also indicated
that the performance of the acquisition radar on the SPAAG was
critical to combat effectiveness. The defeat of anti-tank
helicopters in pop-up engagement geometries became an additional
requirement after the 1972 debut of these weapons in Vietnam.
Trials of the prototype 2S6 / 2K22 Tunguska SPAAGM commenced
in 1980. The prototypes introduced several innovations,
including a 30 mm gun derivative aircraft cannon,
the 9K311 missile and a digital computer for controlling
The earliest production variant, the 2K22 / 2S6 Tunguska / SA-19
Grison, achieved IOC in 1982.
The immediate operational imperative
for the PVO-SV was to defeat the then new A-10A Thunderbolt, and US
helicopters firing anti-armour
missiles, such as the TOW equipped AH-1S and Hellfire equipped AH-64A
. From the Soviet perspective, both of these threats would
pop up briefly above the radar/visual horizon, fire at Soviet tanks or
SPAAGs, and then disappear below the horizon before the ZSU-23-4P or
9K33 Osa / SA-8 systems could respond with defensive weapon fire.
The Soviets needed a weapon system which could win in a 'high noon'
shootout with the A-10 or a nap-of-ther-earth pop-up rotary wing
threat. This drove the design requirements for the Tunguska,
and led to the development of the high speed 9M311 SAM, intended to
cross the distance between the Tunguska and the target before the
latter could hide below the horizon line. This capability would be
supplemented by a 30 mm gun system, the Soviets clearly coveting the
BundesWehr's Krauss-Maffei Wegmann FLAKPanzer Gepard SPAAG.
The missile requirement led to the unusual two stage 9M311 design, in
which the first stage boosted the round to 900 m/s at burnout, the
sustainer in the terminal stage burning to impact and maintaining a 600
m/s velocity. The missile employs command link guidance, with an
automatic Command to
Line Of Sight (CLOS) control loop for the terminal phase to impact,
with an 18G capability. The
engagement radar component of the 1RL144M Hot Shot system is claimed to
in the millimetric band, using jam resistant monopulse angle tracking;
a 1A29M optical sight is boresighted with the radar. A 1RL138 IFF
system is included. Conceptually the 2S6 missile package has its
closest Western equivalents in the Franco-German Roland system, and the
UK Rapier Blindfire and Seawold systems.
The gun requirement led to the adaptation of the 30 mm GSh-30
carried by Russian fighters: the 2A38 series liquid cooled 30 mm gun
delivers a rate of fire of 1950-2500
rds/min, a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s, using the 2A42 cartridge and
0.39 kg projectile.
The initial 1982 2K22 2S6 Tunguska variant was superceded by the
Tunguska M in 1990, and the 2K22M1/2S6M1 Tunguska M1 in 2003. The
product line has been further developed as the Pantsir S, primarily in
a road mobile configuration.
The 9M113-M1 SAM has a higher impulse booster, and radio rather than
laser fusing to improve effect against cruise missiles and Precision
Guided Munitions. Defeating the latter has become one of the primary
requirements for late variants of the 2S6 and the newer Pantsir S/S1
Tunguska M1 system,
note the Hot Shot radar system with the paraboloid section search
antenna and gimballed monopulse tracking antenna (© Miroslav
configuration 2S6M1 Tunguska M1 (Said Aminov, Vestnik PVO).
SPAAG. The Gepard was
a German response to the highly effective ZSU-23-4P SPAAG, and clearly
became a major influence on the design of the Tunguska system, intended
to replace the ZSU-23-4P.
Tunguska batteries are typically deployed with the PU-12M, PPRU-1M or
series of battery command posts.
The operational requirement for the weapon system which became the 96K6
Pantsir system was fundamentally different to that defined by the
PVO-SV for the 2K22 / 2S6 Tunguska - the PVO required a point defence
weapon system to protect its S-300P / SA-10A/B Grumble fixed and
self-propelled SAM batteries from attack by defence suppression
aircraft, and to protect airfields and other critical strategic
or industrial facilities from massed guided weapon attack. Development
was launched in 1990,
the intent being an adaptation of the PVO-SV system for carriage on a
wheeled vehicle compatible with the transit speeds of the PVO's S-300P
/ SA-10A/B Grumble missile batteries.
This new V-PVO operational requirement partly arose due to the
different regime in which the new S-300PS/PM / SA-10/20 batteries were
deployed, as these replaced the semi-mobile S-25 / SA-1 Guild, S-75 /
SA2 Guideline, and the S-200 / SA-5 Gammon. All of these legacy systems
were built for redeployment, but mostly operated as static batteries,
more than often from well hardened sites with bunkers and revetments
for most battery components. The move to “shoot and scoot” operations
improved survivability of the S-300P series batteries by reducing
opportunities for attacking aircraft to target the site, but once
found, the highly mobile SAM battery was usually well exposed and
thus susceptible to attack by smart munitions. The use of hardened
static sites was not possible for Army PVO-SV systems, which by then
had evolved a large number of highly mobile point defence weapons to
protect their longer ranging SAM batteries. The evolution of the
Tunguska into the Pantsir thus reflects the convergence of the V-PVO
SAM battery deployment regime with that of the PVO-SV's SAM regiments.
The effectiveness of the US AGM-88 HARM and UK ALARM in 1991, deployed
against Iraq's legacy Soviet PVO SAM systems added urgency to the
requirement. Iraq's SAM batteries collapsed in the first few days of
Desert Storm under a rain of anti-radiation missiles, which destroyed
their engagement radars without hindrance. If the anti-radiation
missile armed fighter could get close enough to take a shot, the SAM
battery was likely to be lost.
diagram for the Pantsir S system. Right: early
Pantsir S demonstrator on the 8 x 8 Ural-5323.4 vehicle.
Early Pantsir S1 / SA-22
demonstrator on the 8 x 8 Ural-5323.4 vehicle. Note the configuration
of the search and engagement radar
antennas. This design used the earlier 9M335 missile round and the
1L36-1 Roman engagement radar (KBP).
Above: Detail of Pantsir S demonstrator turret,
showing the dual band Phazotron 1L36 Roman engagement radar and early
Russian designed electro-optical suite, early 9M335 missile launchers
and early 30 mm guns (image
Gyűrösi); Below: detail of 9M335 missile launch tubes and 30 mm gun
(via Russkaya Sila).
which remains on offer uses the 8 x 8
better cross country mobility than the lighter KAMAZ chassis, at a
cost. It is not known whether this image using a stretched
chassis represents a mockup or
Pantsir S1 configuration at MAKS-2007, carried by an 8 x 8 KAMAZ-6560
The tracked chassis used with the 2S6 Tunguska was not well suited to
V-PVO needs, as it had a slower road speed than the wheeled S-300P SAM
systems, was less reliable and more expensive to maintain than a
wheeled system, and the
chassis dimensions limited the number of ready rounds and reloads, and
carried 30 mm gun ammunition. The light tank style of tracked chassis
was well hardened, in excess of V-PVO needs, being built for a
battlefield environment. The V-PVO needed a design with more firepower,
faster transit speeds to permit co-deployment with S-300P series SAM
batteries, and a low procurement and operating cost. This dictated a
wheeled host vehicle, much larger than the light tank sized tracked
chassis of 2S6 Tunguska series, and new turret design to accommodate
more launch tubes and newer and larger radar equipment.
The first prototype of the Pantsir S was displayed in 1995, using an
enlarged derivative of the Tunguska's 9K311 missile, the 9K335. Twelve
of these missiles were carried in elevating launch tubes. A pair of
liquid cooled 2A72 30 mm guns were used, the 2A72 providing 300 -
450 rds/min, with a 970 m/s muzzle velocity and an effective range of
3,000 - 4,000 metres.
The Pantsir S system was equipped with
the NIIR Phazotron 1L36-01 Roman
/ Hot Shot which used an
component with a folding paraboloid section antenna, and a dual
band X/MMW band engagement component, under a characteristic conical
radome. Performance requirements included
tracking 0.1 m2
targets at 15 km range. Typically two
targets could be concurrently engaged using the radar, and two using
the adjunct electro-optical tracking system. This radar package
supplanted by the dual band 1RS-2E Shlem, which remains on offer for
The system ran into development problems, and limitations such as the
inability to fire while on the move were considered unacceptable,
resulting in a collapse of funding during this period. KBP continued
experimenting with the design, using company funding.
The result of this was a deep redesign of the Pantsir S, discarding
more of the legacy components and features inherited from the 2S6
series. In particular, the radar package was completely revised, and
the turret redesigned.
VNIIRT were engaged to develop a new PESA technology acquisition radar,
the 2L80/2L80E, using a mechanically rotated 1776x940 mm sized 760 kg
During the 2005-2006 period, KBP shifted development effort
new passive phased array design engagement radar, with the capability
to track multiple targets and missiles concurrently.
Several chassis were trialled during the development of the 96K6
Pantsir S1 system. Initially the 8 x 8 Ural-5323.4 was used, powered by
a 260 SHP KAMAZ-7406 engine, then the 8
x 8 MZKT-7930 was trialled, with the KAMAZ-6530 used for production
systems in Russian, and an EU supplied MAN chassis used for systems
supplied to the United Arab Emirates. the GM-352 tracked series, common
Tunguska, remains on offer, but using a reduced missile loadout.
Production Pantsir S1 systems combine the liquid cooled 2A38M 30 mm
with the high velocity 57E6E two stage CLOS missile, based on the
Tunguska's 9M311 series. The revised gun design delivers a rate
of fire of 1950-2500
rds / min, with a muzzle velocity of 960 metres/s, and the turret
magazine capacity was increased to 1400 rounds.
The 57E6E series SAM is unusual in it class as it is a two stage
weapon, designed for exceptionally high acceleration to effect
snapshots against fleeting targets such as helicopters. Compared to the
earlier 9M311 variants, the higher impulse booster stage pushes the
second stage to 1,100 m/s. KBP are marketing the system as a capability
to engage and destroy the full spectrum of airborne targets, comprising
aircraft, UAVs, cruise missiles, precision guided weapons, ballistic
missiles and soft skinned surface targets.
KBP define the basic capabilities of the Pantsir series thus (cite):
- High jamming immunity in intensive ECM environment;
- High survivability in massive employment of HARM-type
- A capability of destroying high precision weapons, such as
Tomahawk cruise missile, Walleye 2 guided air bomb, Maverick guided
- A capability of engaging fixed- and rotary- wing aircraft,
- Effectiveness at any time of night and day, in good and
- High mobility, specifically for protecting motorized and
- High availability and reliability.
The Pantsir S introduced a 12 round missile capability, a thermal
imaging system to complement the optical tracker, and revised
engagement radar component.
The Pantsir S1 series has been primarily marketed in the road mobile
configuration, which is less costly to acquire and maintain, and trades
away off-road mobility for much higher 90 km/h road speed.
The Pantsir S1 introduces a number of important improvements over the
baseline Pantsir S. The new 57E6 missile replaces the established
9M331 series, this weapon provides 20 km range, 70% more than the
9M331M1, a significantly higher maximum target altitude, challenging
many area defence missiles, a larger 20 kg warhead, and more thrust to
accelerate the missile to 1,300 m/s in 2 seconds.
96K6 Pantsir S1 power generator module (KBP).
|The layout of the current
Pantsir S1 wheeled configuration is highly
modular. The weapon system is packaged in a standard 10 tonne
container, with three crew stations in the front module, followed by an
ECS module, the turret module, with the power generation package in the
aft module. The turret cavity contains the 1,400 round magazine for the
guns, weapon system computers, mission recorders and other hardware.
An opto-electronic search and tracking function is provided, in the
midwave and shortwave infrared bands. The missiles can be alternately
tracked by the engagement radar or the OE system. A digital datalink is
provide to permit networking of multiple Pantsir S1 systems in a
configuration of operator
stations using CRT displays.
stations in the recent Pantsir S1E hosted on the GM-352M1E chassis
96K6 Pantsir S1 turret assembly being outfitted (KBP).
A more detailed analysis of the Ranzhir Command
Post can be found under Warsaw
, and the tracked chassis under Russian
and PLA Point Defence System Vehicles.
IOC in 1983. All follow the
model established by the 1960s 9K33 / SA-8 Gecko, with a 360º search
radar for acquisition and coarse tracking, and narrow beam precision
tracking radar on the front of the system turret, used for target and
missile beacon tracking.
The earliest 2K22/2S6 Tunguska variants employed a radar
package, which used a 1RL144 search radar with a singly curved
parabolic section reflector, and a Cassegrain monopulse tracking
antenna. This design has been designated the Hot Shot in Western
literature. It was supplemented by a 1RL138 IFF interrogator. Russian
references list no less than four variants of of the search radar as
1RL144 for the Tunguska, 1RL144M for the Tunguska M, and the
The progressive iterations in the development of the Pantsir series
resulted in a more complex evolution, both in the acquisition and
engagement radar components for the new system.
The development of the Pantsir S/S1 saw the introduction, initially, of
search radar with a doubly curved parabolic surface and eliptical
shape. This was supplanted in production variants with a VNIIRT
developed phased array. The latter design
has since appeared on 2K22M1 Tunguska M1 demonstrators, as well as
tracked and wheeled 96K6 Pantsir S1 demonstrators and production
The VNIIRT developed PESA technology acquisition radar on the Pantsir
the 2RL80/2RL80E, uses a mechanically rotated 1776 x 940 mm sized 760
passive S-band phased
array. The design provides elevation coverage between 0° and 60°, range
coverage between 1 and 50 km, and performs a circular scan in 2 or 4
seconds. The radar can initiate tracking in 2 seconds. Cited detection
range performance for a 1 m2
target is 47 km, for a 0.1 m2
target is 26 km. Cited clutter rejection is 55 dB. Accuracy figures
cited are 50 metres in range, 15 - 18 min of arc in azimuth, and 25 -
30 min of arc in elevation.
Elevation coverage is selectable in increments of 0° - 60°, 0° - 30°,
40° - 80° and 0 - 25°, and the radar can search a 360° circle at 15 or
30 RPM. Range coverage can be selected in several modes, at 1-30 km,
1-50 km, 1-25 km and 3-80 km.
Acquisition performance for various target types has also been cited,
with notable inconsistencies:
- 36 km for a small fighter with a 2 m2 RCS;
- 20 km for a manoeuvring cruise missile with a 0.1 m2
- 16 km for a glidebomb with a 0.2 m2 RCS;
- 12 km for an AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missile with a 0.1 m2
- 32 km for an AH-64 Apache attack helicopter.
The evolution of engagement radars in the Pantsir series has seen three
Early Pantsir S1 demonstrators initially used an MMW band monopulse
tracking antenna, with a characteristic conical radome, with the
Russians claiming two discrete Phazotron designs in this configuration,
the 1L36-01 Roman and later 1RS2-E Shlem.
This pulse Doppler radar is designated the 1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR
Slezheniya Tsel'a i Rakety - Target and Missile Tracking Station),
initially designated the 1RS1 and 1RS1-E for export. Cited tracking
performance for a 2 m2
target is 30 km. Cited RMS angular
X-band operation are 0.3-0.8 milliradians, for Ku-band operation
0.2-0.4 milliradians, with a 5 metre range error.
The X-band component of the SSTsR is used for target tracking, and
uplink of missile steering commands., the Ku-band component for target
and missile beacon tracking. The system typically guides one or two
missile rounds against a single target.
This design has since appeared on the
2K22M1 Tunguska M1 demonstrators, various repackaged Pantsir variants
on smaller chassis, usually with the 2RL80E acquisition radar.
In 2004 the requirement for the PVO engagement radar changed, when it
was expected that the program would be cancelled. A new requirement was
issued to increase the number of concurrent targets to be tracked and
engaged, and engagement range was increased. This likely reflects the
success of the US GBU-31/32/35/38 JDAM and emergence of analogues
globally, where more than two weapons would be released from an
aircraft concurrently. With the GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb intended
to be released eight at a time, the Roman and Shlem would be saturated
in a single aircraft attack.
This resulted in the development of an entirely new PESA based radar,
curiously designated the 1RS2-1
, but also incorrectly labelled by a Russian source as
1RL123-E. VNIIRT has been credited with the development of this design.
To date all imagery has excluded views of the PESA antenna without the
protective radome, so the following description is based on recent
public disclosures and is yet to be validated :
- Operating centre wavelength claimed by KBP to be “8 mm
in the K-band” - antenna geometry suggests 15 mm (20 GHz) to 18 mm
- Beamsteering angles of up to ±45° of arc;
- Mechanical PESA boresight steering in elevation between -5°
- Track while scan of nine separate targets;
- 90% probability of initial target acquisition within 1
second of coordinate transfer from the 2RL80 with errors of ±2.5° in
azimuth, ±2.5° in elevation, ±200 m in range and ±60 metres / sec in
- Tracking errors of 0.2 milliradians in azimuth, 0.3
milliradians in elevation, 5 metres in range and 2 metres / sec in
- Ability to track airborne targets at velocities between 10
to 1,100 metres / sec;
- Ability to capture 4 missiles after launch;
- Ability to track 3 to 4 outbound missiles at velocities
between 30 to 2,100 metres / sec;
- Detection range of 24 km against a 2.0 m2 RCS
airborne target; 21 km against a 1 m2 RCS airborne target;
16 km against a 0.5 m2 RCS airborne target; 10 km against a
0.1 m2 RCS airborne target; 7 km against a 0.03 m2
RCS airborne target;
High countermeasures resistance is claimed for the 1RS2-1 and 2RL80,
but not detailed beyond the standard descriptions found in brochures.
The primary antenna is used for target and missile tracking, it is
supplemented by a command link antenna which is part of the APKNR
(Apparatura Peredachi Komand i Naprovadzaniya Raket) subsystem for
datalink control of the missiles.
A more detailed discussion can be found under Engagement and
Fire Control Radars
In July, 2011, Russian target drone manufacturer ENIKS published an
image of a Pantsir S1 system equipped with a new acquisition radar
design. The radar is a Janus-faced ESA, evidently intended to generate
track outputs at a significantly higher rate than the VNIIRT
2RL80/2RL80E on early production systems for the Russian PVO and export
clients. The system is claimed to be for an export client, not
disclosed, who may be Middle Eastern given the desert camouflage on the
prototype vehicle. A higher tracking rate would provide a better
capability to track PGM targets, especially variants of the AGM-88
96K6 Pantsir S1 system with revised acquisition radar
Electro-optical tracking turret on
Pantsir S1. The optics indicate a three field of view stabilised TV
system and a single field of view thermal imaging sensor (image
Early variants of the Tunguska series introduced an electroptical
tracker to provide silent angle tracking in jamming environments. The
electro-optical tracking system includes a longwave (8 - 14 μm
band) thermal imager for target acquisition and tracking, and a dual
band short (3 - 5 μm) / midwave (0.6 -1.1. μm) IR tracker for
measurement of the missile beacon.
In the Pantsir S1 the AOP (Avtonomniy Opticheskiy Post) is cued by the
radar system, and provides angle tracking of the target and missiles.
The cited system specifications are :
- Azimuth coverage of ± 90 °;
- Elevation coverage from -5 ° to 82°;
- Angular tracking rate of 100° / sec;
- Angular acceleration of 170° / sec;
- French Sagem MATIS LR midwave thermal imager with WFOV of
4.17° x 6.25°, and NFOV of 0.87° x 1.3°, with a 0.05 mrad angular track
- Acquisition performance: F-16 at 17 to 26 km; AGM-88 HARM
at 13 to 15 km; cruise missiles at 11 to 14 km, and glidebombs at ~10
The infrared missile flare tracker operates in the 0.77-0.91 μm band,
with a WFOV mode of ± 2.5° in azimuth and -1° to 4° in elevation, and
an NFOV of is ± 0.4° in azimuth and -0.3° to 0.6° in elevation.
The system can track a laser spot with an error of 2 milliradians.
stage cutaway: 1 - proximity fuse; 2 - contact fuse; 3 - warhead; 4 -
explosive filler; 5 - canard actuators; 6 - electronics module; 7 -
gyro package; 9 - RF transponder beacon; 10 - optical beacon (Images via KBP, Russkaya Sila, Vestnik
9M311 and 57E6
Air Missiles and 2A38 Gun
The 2K22 / 96K6 / SA-19 / SA-22 systems use variants of one basic
missile and one basic gun design.
The missile designs are all derivatives of the two stage command link
guided 9M311 weapon. This is a 42 kg launch weight missile, with a low
smoke motor intended to avoid problems with optical/infrared tracking
of targets and laser rangefinding. The second terminal kill stage is
unpowered and relies on kinetic energy imparted by the boost stage, the
design strategy intended to minimise the dead weight and drag of the
kill stage. Average missile speed is cited at 600 m/s (~Mach 2), and
the weapon has a cited capability to engage targets manoevring at 5-7G,
although this is not consistent with the cited 18G capability of the
Early variants of the missile use a laser proximity fuse, later
variants a radio proximity fuse, with a blast fragmentation warhead.
The fuse is triggered ~5 metres from the target. An impact fuse is also
provided, with the proximity fuse disabled for shots against surface
The principal differences between the production 57E6 missile, and
earlier 9M311 and 9M335, are the use of a larger booster and filament
wound composite casings replacing light metal alloys, and the
introduction of a larger and more lethal expanding rod warhead. The
higher impulse of the propulsion system, and lighter missile structure,
result in greater range and velocity compared to the 2K22 / SA-19
All missiles are ejected from the launch tube / storage container by a
gas generator cartridge, with the booster ignited once the missile has
cleared a safe distance. Aerodynamic canard controls are employed for
the second stage. Russian sources claim the use of a ram air generator
to power the missile electronics, but there is not visible evidence of
conventionl vanes for this purpose.
The 57E6 missile weighs 71 kg at launch, of which 20 kg is the warhead
section. Booster burn duration is 1.5 seconds, accelerating the missile
to 1220 metres/s. The cited velocity profile for the 57E6-E export
variant is 900 metres/s at 12 km and 700 metres/s at 18 km range.
The 90 mm diameter expanding rod warhead uses 5 kg of explosive filler,
and employs 47 rods of 5 mm diameter and 770 mm length. This is
intended to provide a 100 percent probability of hitting a coplanar
target at a range of up to 6 metres, and a 65 percent probability of
hitting a coplanar target at a range of 9 metres. The warhead is
designed to produce ~700 2.8 gram fragments, and ~2,260 0.9 gram
fragments. The radar proximity fuse range is cited at 9 metres.
Export 57E6-E missile rounds employ a longer burn duration booster
which has raised the peak velocity to 1,300 metres/s. These rounds have
a launch weight of 75.7 kg.
Missile rounds for domestic Russian PVO use are designated the 95Ya6
series, with the current block designated the 95Ya6.04. These missiles
are cited to have an effective range of 20 km and ceiling of 15 km,
making them highly competitive against legacy area defence SAMs.
An improved SAM round for PVO use, believed to be the 23Ya6, is
expected to soon be introduced. This weapon would appear to use the
same terminal stage as the current 57E6/95Ya6 series, but introduces a
longer and larger 210 mm diameter booster stage, versus the 170 mm
diameter booster in current rounds. Russian sources suggest an ability
to engage targets travelling at 1,850 metres/sec, against 1,000
metres/sec cited for the existing round. With higher kinetic energy the
improved missile would reduce engagement times, and provide more G
capability for endgame manoeuvres - otherwise a traditional weakness of
command link and beam rising SAMs.
The 2A38 series 30 mm gun is a twin barrel revolver design with a belt
feed and an electrical drive. The barrels are cooled using water or an
anti-freeze fluid. The barrels can be elevated to +85º and depressed to
-9º relative to the turret base. Cited total rate of fire for the 2K22
variant of the gun is 4060-4810 rds/min with a muzzle velocity of
960-980 m/sec. A range of shell types are available including tracers,
HEI and fragmentation.
S1 launching a missile at the Kapustin Yar test range (KBP).
Operational 96K6 Pantsir S1 on parade (© 2010 Evgeniy
Production and Exports
quantities seen with the ZSU-23-4. Most
former Soviet 2S6 and 2S6M systems were claimed by Russia, Belarus and
the Ukraine upon the breakup of the USSR. Known export clients include
India (M and M1) and Morocco (M1).
Pantsir has been ordered by the UAE, Syria and Algeria, and Iran is
also claimed as a client. European
sources claim the PLA and Greece were negotiating for the system. The
system is offered on the 8 x 8 KAMAZ-6560, a specially
stretched 8 x 8 MZKT-7930,
the tracked GM 352M1E chassis (with a reduced missile
loadout and more basic radar), or an EU sourced MAN SX 45 8 x 8
At least one prototype Pantsir S1 system has
been recently built on the BAZ 6909 “Voshchina” series 8 x
chassis, common to the S-300PMU2 / S-400
5P85TE2 TEL, NNIIRT Nebo M radar system, and initially developed as a
heavy artillery tractor for offroad use. This 41,300 kg gross weight
vehicle is powered by a YaMZ-8431.10-200 or YaMZ-8942.10-033
up to 1.4 metres in height, and the 550/75R21 tyres are connected to
a central air pressure control system, similar to many armoured
vehicles, to maintain inflation when perforated, and control traction
in very soft terrain. To date all operational
systems with Russian military units have been observed on the
KAMAZ-6560. The larger BAZ-6909 would offer better cross country
performance and potentially more reload rounds in storage. It is likely
this will become the standard production configuration for the Russian
Russian media reports in 2010 indicated that operational 96K6 / SA-22
batteries were being assigned to protect S-400 / SA-21 strategic SAM
system batteries from Precision Guided Munition (PGM) attacks. This is
consistent with previously published and planned air